THE SEARCH FOR HINDUS LOST TEMPLES IN THE CITY OF TEMPLES(VARANASI) .


These pillars date back to 8th- 9th century or perhaps even earlier. These pillars of the grand temple are now a part of the mosque.

BELOW IS A PARAGRAPH FROM TAJUL MASSIR FIRST OFFICIAL HISTORY (SULTAN CHRONICLE) OF THE DELHI SULTANATE. WRITTEN IN PERSIAN BY SADRUDDIN HASAN NIZAMI

He purged by his sword the land of Hind (INDIA) from the filth of infidelity… and the impurity of idol-worship, and left not one temple standing… When he arrived at Mirat (Meerut) all the idol temples were converted into mosques. He then marched and encamped under the fort of Delhi. The city and its vicinity were freed from idols and idol-worship, and in the sanctuaries, mosques were raised by the worshippers of one God. The royal army proceeded towards Benares,(VARANASI) which is the Centre of the country of Hind, and here they destroyed nearly one thousand temples. The temples were converted into mosques and abodes of goodness, and the ejaculations of bead-counters and voices of summoners to prayer ascended to high heaven, and the very name of idolatry was annihilated.

ISLAMIC IDEOLOGY WAS LIKE A tremendous storm of destruction for Varanasi, which was the center of many religions like Hindu, Buddhist, Jain … The land where Mahatma Buddha had preached non-violence, peace, public welfare to the world, was facing immense destruction from the havoc of an ideology that emanated from Arabia. Countless temples were demolished by Muslim invaders, all over India, some of the most prominent Hindu temples, which were destroyed by Muslim invaders, were later rebuilt. But many temples are still mosques and remain unchanged.
Temples in Varanasi, the holiest city of Hindus, were demolished for the first time in 1193-94. The Hindus had to struggle a long time to get their temples back. Surprisingly, many of the temples that were demolished in 1193-94 and from whose rubble the mosques were built on the same site are still reminiscent of Islamic imperialism. After independence, the history of India was no longer independent. Nehruvian, Marxist fake historians wrote a fake history of India, the whole game of historiography in India was inspired by the political-history writings of Communist historians of the Soviet Union. All the civilizations of the world have seen defeat, cruelty, blood, tears, and learned from their mistakes.
AFTER INDEPENDENCE, BOGUS MARXIST HISTORIANS DISTANCED INDIANS FROM THE NATURAL ART OF MAN’S LEARNING FROM MISTAKES, WHICH WE ALSO CALL EXPERIENCE.

History has stopped. Nothing exists except an endless present in which the Party is always right.” GEORGE ORWELL

There are many such mosques, dargahs in Banaras(Varanasi) which have been built from the ruins of the temple. But in this post I decided to focus on the region around Rajghat for a couple of reasons listed below.

RAJGHAT AREA

  1. Varanasi is not only the holiest city of Hindus, but it also ranks among the oldest cities in the world, the oldest signs of this ancient city are found in the Rajghat area, undoubtedly the most famous, sacred and ancient temples of Hindus must have existed in this area.
  2. When Qutbuddin Aibak and, Sahabuddin Ghori conquered Banaras in 1194, the king of Banaras was Jaichand. Many such temples fall in the Rajghat area, which had immense reverence for Jaichand.

JAICHAND’S KINGDOM

WHO WAS JAICHAND? Jaichand was a powerful Gaharwar Rajput king of eastern Uttar Pradesh and some parts of Bihar. Jaichand’s father was Vijaychandra and grandfather was Govindchandra. Even today, a large population of Gaharwar Rajputs is found in Varanasi and nearby towns. Unfortunately, Jaichand is counted amongst the most traitor kings of India and it is believed that Jaichand had an old enmity with another famous Indian king of that time, Prithviraj Chauhan. It is considered that Mohammed Ghauri was invited to India by Jaichand to humiliate and to defeat Prithviraj Chauhan. There is no evidence on this subject, but no doubt these things have ruined the reputation of Jaichand.

In the present world scenario, it becomes necessary to unveil the false history and learn from experience. In recent times, it is necessary to know the history of these temples to understand the incidents like the unprovoked killing of Hindus in Bangladesh, Pakistan the destruction of a large number of Hindu temples, the rise of Islamic extremism in West Bengal.

A Knowledge of History, even of the darkest past, can be quite useful, even for the future. (Anatoly Markusha, Miracles on wheels)


Rajghat:- Here the remains dating back to 2000 BC have been found in excavations.

RAJGHAT :- THE CROSSROAD OF HISTORY.

According to Hindu ancient scriptures, the ancient city of Varanasi was settled at the present Rajghat place. In recent years many ancient remains of Varanasi city have been found in various excavations near Rajghat. Surprisingly, many times the temples mentioned in the ancient scriptures have been confirmed on the basis of the remains found here. The city of Varanasi is named after the Varuna and Asi rivers, Varuna and Asi thus Varanasi. Close to Rajghat, the Varuna river confluences with the Ganges, the most major and important river of Varanasi. Some ancient Hindu temples which are now mosques or have been rebuilt are located near Raj Ghat. Rajghat comes in the oldest area of Varanasi, this is also one of the reasons why I chose this area for my research.

72 PILLARED MOSQUE


In 1194 CE this temple was demolished and a mosque was built over it. Even today, these pillars of the temple seem to convey the story of the destruction of temples and the massacre of Hindus.

72 PILLARED MOSQUE:- There is a mosque near Raj Ghat which is known as the 72 pillared mosque. The structure of this mosque is completely different from the normal ones. There is a hall inside this mosque, which is about 150 FEET LONG AND 25 FEET WIDE . There are 72 very beautiful pillars in this hall, the geometric art made on these pillars is worth seeing. These pillars date back to the Gaharwar kingdom or perhaps even earlier. All the pillars are made of sandstone. Paintwork has been done on all the pillars. For this reason, the beauty of the age-old ancient art engraved on it looks diminished. For the conquering religion, the defeated religion and civilization has no meaning, according to Islamic theology, idol worship is a serious crime and this temple had to bear the punishment for this crime, The Muslims around the mosque were very humble and were also eager to help me, but they were prejudiced, they had their own arguments. They all agreed that the pillars of the mosque were ancient but they all believed that the Islamic artists who came with Qutubuddin Aibak and Ghori had built them. Some had philosophical arguments, they were adamant that the pillars of the mosque were built by jinns. (Supernatural creatures in early pre-Islamic Arabian religious systems). When they realized that I was Hindu, they gave a suspicious expression. I even had to resort to a little lie to click the photos of the interior of this mosque.

ELEVENTH CENTUARY BANARAS(VARANASI) & ADI KESHAV :-

Adi means ancient, The word Keshav is synonymous with Lord Vishnu. Adi Keshav means the ancient temple of Lord Vishnu. It is known from the Gaharwal inscriptions that the temple of Adi Keshav at Adi Keshav Ghat has a great reputation.


VARUNA SANGAM GHAT OR ADI KESHAV GHAT

ADI KESHAV GHAT:- ACCORDING TO HINDU RELIGIOUS TEXTS The importance of Adi Keshav Ghat has been mentioned in Kashi Khanda, Matsya Purana and Linga Purana. This ghat is also known as Varuna Sangam Ghat. According to Kashi Khanda after being advised by Lord Shiva, Lord Vishnu put his first step in Kashi at this ghat After he washed his foot he left a foot impression on the ghat where he installed a Statue of his own. This site is also known as Padodak Tirtha. It is believed that a holy dip at this spot helps to free the devotees from the circle of life and death. Bhudevi, Sridevi and Keshavaditya are also worshipped at this temple. The temple of Adi Keshav has a Sabha mandap and a Garbha Griha. This place has been mentioned in the writings of Chandradev, Madanpal, Govindchand, and Jaichand.


ADI KESHAV TEMPLE

This ghat exists even today at the confluence of the rivers Varuna and Ganga. Adi Keshav Temple is built near this Ghat. It is known from a copper plate inscription from Chandravati that is dated back to 1100 A.D that Chandradeva (King of Chandravati) donated gold and silver, with thousand seals, at the Adi Keshav temple and donated thirty-two villages as Brahmadeya(land gifted to Brahamanas) to five hundred brahmins. According to Kamauli copper plate inscription, in 1168 AD, after taking a bath at Adikeshwar Ghat, with the permission of his father Vijaychand, Jaichand took initiation in the service of Krishna devotion and donated a village to Prahraj Sharma on the occasion. The second copper plate inscription about Jaichand also shows that he was a devotee of Adikeshav. An inscription by Govindchand also reveals some Shaiva and Vaishnava temples of the Gahadwal-era. After bathing in the Ganges in Banaras, he donated a house situated in the city of Banaras to the great Dayin Sharma. All these historical details show that the Adi Keshav temple was an ancient temple, this temple had a great reputation and the ruler of this area at that time – Jaichand, had a deep attachment to it.

The most ancient remains of the Adi Keshav Temple.

Adi Keshav temple was demolished in the Islamic invasion of 1194. Hindus in Varanasi tried to get back their temples as soon as they got the right opportunity, but there is no evidence whether or not this temple was reconstructed, the reason why it wasn’t reconstructed is possibly because Jaichand was associated with it and he is considered as a traitor. Or perhaps over a period of time, due to the increase in the number of Shiva-temples in Varanasi, the importance of this temple decreased as it was dedicated to Lord Vishnu not Shiva. Or maybe due to the increase in the population of the city in other areas, the popularity of this temple was affected. It is difficult to say anything about this temple as there are no historical documents available on this subject. Then afterwards this temple was rebuilt in 1807 by Sindhia of Gwalior. At present, the lowest part of the temple seems to be ancient, and from it’s appearance, it appears to be built in Gaharwar era. The upper part of the temple, built-in 1807, maybe important from the point of view of reverence, but the ancient art of temples is missing in this temple.

LAKKAD SHA MOSQUE AND MAJAR :-

Near Bhainsa Sur Ghat, there is Lakkar Shah Mazar and Masjid. This mazar is adjacent to the main road and is built at a height of 15-20 feet. From seeing it, it seems that this tomb is built on the ruins of a Hindu temple.
On top of the platform made of stone, it seems that someone has placed a separate tomb and a building built above the tomb.
Looking at this tomb, it seems that this small building has been constructed in three different periods.

  1. The base seems to be the remains of an ancient temple, 15 feet in height and about 30 feet in length and width. Such bases are commonly found in ancient Hindu temples and Buddhist stupas.
  2. The tomb may have been built on the ruins of this temple in the 12th – thirteenth century.
  3. Seeing the domed building reflecting Islamic architecture style above the tomb, it appears that this structure was built in the Mughal period. Hindu temple pillars can clearly be seen in this Islamic structure at the four corners and at the entrance.

SHARIABAD :- After the Hindus got defeated in 1194, new localities of muslims were built here, and during this time many mosques, dargahs, and graveyards were also built. Almost all these dargahs, Islamic cemeteries, and mosques were built by demolishing Hindu temples. In those days this area was known as Shariabad. During the Mughal period, this area was known as Baag-Badshah.

BATTLE FOR SOULS:-

The fundamental principle of Islam, “destruction of idolatry”, was hindering conversion, as a result, thousands of Sufis adopted a new path of jihad —- these Sufis talked of unity instead of Hindu and Islam contradiction. JEHAD FI-SABILILIAH is not the exclusive domain of the professional soldier, nor it is restricted to the application of military force alone. A Sufi musical Kauwali was developed by mixing Islamic verses with Hindu mantras.
These Sufis converted the graveyards of Islamic warriors into a new shrine. Many supernatural tales were created about these Islamic warriors, surprisingly these were the Islamic warriors who were responsible for the massacre of Hindus, the biggest enemies of idolaters. This package of jihad became popular very quickly and played a major role in the spread of Islam in the Indian subcontinent. Many such tombs, graveyards came into existence in the Rajghat area between 12th-13th century.
Presently some of the main MAJARS (TOMB) are:-

1.Rauja Chandan Shahid
2.Rauja Ajgaib Shahid
3..Rauja Palang Shahid RAUJA means shrine or tomb. It is also known as Maqbara,majar,Dargah.
SHAHID means Muslim martyr.

RAUJA CHANDAN SHAHID

RAUJA CHANDAN SHAHID :- This tomb is located at Rajghat on the opposite side of Adi-Keshava Temple. Undoubtedly there must have been an ancient temple here, presently a mosque, Chandan Shahid tomb and some tombs in open ground can be found here. Both Hindu and Muslim devotees can be seen at the mazar. The tomb is full of Islamic culture and traditions. The mosque, the tomb are all painted in holy Islamic colors. [GREEN] Some calendars are hung on the outer wall of the mausoleum, with photographs of Mecca-Medina and some with verses of the Qur’an covered in glass frames, the whole atmosphere was medieval. When I tried to enter a room in Chandan Shahid tomb, a young boy stopped me and requested me to put the Islamic cap on my head. When I asked the reason for this, he said that this is the tradition here. He had some Islamic caps which he kept for the visitors who were not wearing one. Inside the Mazar, the pillars of the room were all green. I also smelled some kind of Itra (Islamic perfume) there which was literally disgusting. It still makes me shiver whenever I think of it’s smell.

RAUJA AJGAIB SHAHID There is a mosque, a holy tomb built on the rear side of the mosque and a hall possibly the buildings of this place have been repaired and rebuilt so many times that there is no trace of the pre-Islamic invasion. Only a few stone stairs are visible which look old, which are attached to the platform, just on this basis it is impossible to say anything about it’s history.

RAUJA PALANG SHAHID :- IN THE SHADOW OF THE SWORD


These pillars which seem to be a part of a temple became a part of the tomb(MAZAR) in 1194 CE


This pillar of the tomb does have some kind of ancient Hindu deity’s art made over it but it’s impossible to tell anything about the art or the deity because of the thick layers of paint on it.

There is another major tomb in front of Ajgaiz Shahid on the Grand Trunk Road itself, this mazar is known as Palang Shahid. This place was an old cemetery, the description of this cemetery is also in the Banaras Gazetteers. The boundary wall of the cemetery is new. When entering through the main gate, there is a graveyard, when walking further into the graveyard there are three buildings and some more graves built on a square stone platform. These three buildings are-:

  1. A mosque
  2. A tomb with a dome shaped roof.(Note that this tomb is not of Palang Shahid.)
  3. The main Tomb of Palang Shahid . This tomb is situated right in the middle of the square stone platform. Modern tiles are installed on the tomb. This tomb has four pillars and a square shaped roof which has the dome built over it. The four pillars and the square roof built on these pillars is a pre-Islamic structure. If we take a look only at the four pillars and the square shaped roof over it, ignoring the domed structure and the tomb, it seems to be the CHAUKI of an ancient Hindu temple. It appears that the tomb and the dome built on top of the square roof are not the part of the original structure but have been separately placed over it. CHAUKI or CHOWKI :-In all Hindu temples, this type of structure is found near the main entrance of the temple, which is called Chauki (square seat).

Beautiful geometric designs and some figures are engraved on the four ornate pillars of the Chauki .These figures might be of Hindu deities. These figures aren’t very clearly visible because of the thick coats of paint above them. Another thing that caught my attention was the poster on this mazar. On the poster there was a sword with a picture of Mecca and the fundamental principles of Islam were written. THERE IS NO GOD EXCEPT ALLAH, MUHAMMAD IS THE MESSENGER OF ALLAH.

“Those that fail to learn from history are doomed to repeat it.”

JUST BELOW THE LANTERN- LIES THE DARKNESS

Learning nothing from history has somehow become the destiny of India.

Vasanta College for Women is adjacent to Adi Keshav Temple in Rajghat area. This college was established in 1913 by Annie Besant. Annie Besant was a British woman who was influenced by Hindu religion culture, she had a major role in introducing the western countries to Hindu religion and culture. She was also a major contributor to India’s freedom struggle and social movements.
In Rajghat area, I visited the ruins of many ancient temples, tombs, mosques, graveyards, etc., near Keshav temple, along my way I crossed Vasanta College for Women, I talked to the girls there and asked to know their views. I tried this many times but I got disappointed in every single one of my attempt. To my great surprise, these graduating students didn’t knew anything about the history of the ancient temple adjacent to the wall of their college, nearby madarasas, dargahs. Only a few girls had went to the Adi Keshav temple and they too had a religious outlook not historical. They had no idea about the history of Islamic conversion, they had no idea about this dreadful period of Islamic imperialism history.

No one had even seen Chandan Shaheed Mazar, everyone had the same opinion about it – it is a symbol of Hindu-Muslim unity, When I asked them how? They immediately threw the answer as “We don’t know” .

This selective way of looking at history is a product of Nehruvians.
Completely political, completely devoted to the family, in the present world when there is a conflict between Islam and other religions, how much will this ostrich attitude help us? Gautam Buddha gave his first sermon here in Varanasi (Sarnath), barely five kilometers from Rajghat. After attaining enlightenment in Gaya, Buddha had entered Varanasi through this historical route Uttar Path, whose teachings in Sarnath based on peace and non-violence, two and a half thousand years ago were known as Dhamma Chakra Parivartan. The Buddha’s knowledge, the holy land of Sarnath, were completely destroyed by the havoc created by Islamic imperialism in 1194. India lost much of its knowledge of Buddha. (Centuries later, some British historians discovered some Buddha relics in the excavation of Sarnath, and India got a chance to get acquainted with the thoughts of Buddha again.)
The reason why Hindus were defeated was because they had very limited knowledge outside there geographical area, this ignorance is prevalent in Hindu society even today. Only the future will tell for how long a civilization that has not learned anything and still not ready to learn anything from its experiences will survive.

National Symbols and Identity

A short glimpse of why I decided to write this post.

A few days ago, my wife had to go for corona vaccination, I had already been vaccinated two months ago so I was aware of the corona vaccination center nearest to my house, on the request of my wife, I agreed to go with her .The corona vaccination center was five kilometers away from my house. It was a government hospital. Surprisingly there was silence when we both reached the Corona Vaccination Center .Then a nurse showed up, we asked her for information on corona vaccination. She pointed out to the primary school adjacent to the hospital, understanding his gesture, we proceeded towards the primary school, why the vaccination was in the school instead of the hospital? I soon came to know the reason of this from the people who have came their to get vaccinated. Now the speed of vaccination is getting fast, and due to more and more people coming for vaccination, patients of other diseases were facing problems in the hospital, the hospital ground was small. I found the decision of the hospital administration to be right. Due to Corona, all the schools are closed, in such a situation there is no problem to use the school building as a vaccination center.

The vaccination campaign was going on in full swing in the school. There were separate queues of women and men. My wife went to the women’s row and queued up. There were like fifteen, twenty women in the queue, all waiting for their turn wearing masks. (Corona vaccination is free all over India) I had few minutes so I started looking carefully at the school courtyard, buildings, artefacts made by school students Bright colors were used extensively in the artworks made by young children. Similarly, the geometrical figures made by the children were also full of bright, dazzling colors.
Suddenly my attention was drawn to an artwork depicting national symbols.
Seeing a fair chance to check my general knowledge, I decided to read it. To my surprise I was unaware of a national identity. (National sweet – Jalebi.)I was astonished even more when I saw the name of Hockey written in the national game. Under the right to information, some people had asked the government for information regarding the national game, According to the information given by the government, India does not have any National sport. It was a misinformation about the national identity inside the school building! I felt very strange, I looked for any staff of the school but I didn’t find any, I saw a suggestion box . I quickly wrote information related to this topic on a piece of paper and dropped it in the suggestion box. Two or three days after this incident, I got a call from my childhood friend Saurabh. While talking, I mentioned this incident to him, he was also surprised. I mentioned symbols of national identity to my son, he was also not aware of some symbols, so under general information I thought of writing a post on this topic.

FEW IMPORTENT NATIONAL SYMBOLS

NATIONAL -FLAG

The national flag of India has three equal-proportioned stripes. Saffron is at the top, white in the middle and green at the bottom. There is a blue wheel in the middle of the white stripe. This wheel is taken from the Ashoka Pillar kept in the Sarnath Museum. There are twenty-four spoked in it, which symbolize being working (moving) round the clock. Saffron color symbolizes courage, white color symbolizes peace and coexistence, while green color represents fertility and prosperity of the country.

NATIONAL ANTHEM

The national anthem of India is Jana Gana-Mana. This national anthem is written by the great poet Rabindranath Tagore. The national anthem of India was originally written in Bengali. After independence, the independent Constituent Assembly of the country accepted it as the national anthem on 24 January 1950. Instructions are issued from time to time regarding the correct version of the National Anthem, the occasions on which it should be played or sung and the need to give respect to the National Anthem in order to maintain the proper dignity on these occasions.

NATIONAL SONG

The national song of India is Vande Mataram. The national song is taken from the book Anand Math written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee. The song vande Mataram was composed by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee in 1870, in 1882 this song was added to the book Anand Math. In his novel Anand Math, Bankim Chandra wrote the valor of the revolutionaries who challenged the British and made the Indians realize that freedom is their first right, which is the solemn duty of every Indian to achieve. The novel, based on the revolt of the monks of Bengal against British imperialism, had a song on the worship of the motherland. The title of this song was —- Vande Mataram. Later this title became the epitome of opposition to British imperialism. Its popularity can be understood from the fact that it was accepted for greetings throughout the country. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2021/01/25/bharat-mata-mandirmother-india-temple-and-vande-mataram/

ASHOKA LION CAPITAL (NATIONAL EMBLEM OF INDIA )

The Lion Capital is the national emblem of India. It has been taken from the Ashoka Lot found in Sarnath. It has four lions standing facing all the four directions. The Dhamma Chakra was built on these four lions, which was found in many pieces in the excavation. These four lions are standing on a solid base. There are also four other animals on the base. Each of these four animals has its place as a symbol of Buddhism: the lion represents Sakyasimha, lion of the Sakya clan, with the voice of a lion; the elephant signifies Sakyamuni entering the womb of his mother Mayadevi in her dream, but also Sakyamuni as the tamer of wild elephants; the horse, besides being a symbol of temporal royalty, is the vehicle that carried Prince Siddhartha on his journey of renunciation; finally, the bull is the great inseminator, here symbolising the Buddha’s teaching, the Dharma. The horse and elephant together support the Wheel-turning Monarch. In the center is the Dhammachakra. (ASHOKA THE SEARCH FOR INDIA’S LOST EMPEROR.page 334.335) For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2020/12/03/hindu-philosophy-and-the-importance-of-peace-9-11-1893-9-112001/

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LOTUS

Lotus :- The national flower of India is lotus. In ancient Hindu civilization, it has the status of a sacred flower. It has always been found in the description of Hindu gods and goddesses and in the picture stories. In many sculptures, Gautam Buddha is also depicted sitting on a lotus flower, or in a meditative posture. Many mythological stories are related to this flower, it has also played a major role in the first freedom struggle of India. Roti(Indian bread ) and lotus were the symbols of rebellion in the first freedom struggle. Lotus is found in abundance in almost the whole India, especially in the rural areas of Bengal.

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GANGA (GANGES)

National River:- The Ganges River is considered the most sacred river by the Hindus. It originates from the Himalayas and joins the Bay of Bengal. In this journey, the river Ganges completes a journey of about 2500 km. Many ancient and religious cities of Hindus are situated on the banks of this river. HARIDWAR,PRAYAGRAJ KANPUR,VARANASI,MIRZAPUR,FARRUKHABAD, KANNAUJ,BHAGALPUR,PATNA,HAJIPUR,MUNGER,KOLKATA etc.) Many religious festivals of Hindus are organized in the cities situated on the banks of this river. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2021/01/18/makar-sankranti-is-an-ancient-hindu-festival-or-the-burden-of-old-tradition/

A GIGANTIC BANYAN TREE 

VAT VRIKSHA (BANYAN TREE)

The Banyan tree has got the status of the National tree of India. It is found in abundance in almost all of South Asia. Many religious customs and festivals of Hindus are associated with this tree. The Vat Vriksha is also called the Banyan tree. There is a story behind it. The Banyan tree is huge, due to which many shopkeepers used to set up their small shop under the Banyan tree in the village, countryside, naturally the Banyan tree also protected them from heat, winter rain, and for this, they had to spend no money. Or no special effort had to be made. In India, the merchants are also called Baniya, for this reason, the British started calling this tree by the name of Banyan.  Hindu women fast and worship the banyan tree for the long life of their husbands. Surely this tradition must have started in ancient times, influenced by the vastness of the Banyan tree, and its long life. In Hindus, in such religious festivals, there is an association of that festival with some ancient event. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2021/07/07/how-imperialism-turned-a-tree-of-longevity-into-a-tree-of-death/

JALEBI

NATIONAL SWEET

The national sweet of India is Jalebi. Equally popular all over India. A staple breakfast in North India. In North India, it is eaten with milk, curd, and rabri. It is also mentioned in ancient religious texts. In modern times, many culinary experts have done many experiments with Jalebi, and have found methods of making it in different ways.

NATIONAL BIRD

Peacock has been the hallmark of Indian culture. It is mentioned a lot in ancient scriptures. Lord Krishna of Hindus is depicted with peacock feathers since ancient times. Peacock is mentioned as the vehicle of Kartikeya, the son of Lord Shiva. It is represented by carvings in all the major ancient buildings of India. It also had a prominent place in the Painting of India. Peacock is also called the king of birds in India due to its unique beauty, charming color. When the peacock dances with its wings spread in the rainy season, then a wonderful, panoramic view can be seen. The peacock was declared the national bird of India on 26 January 1963.
PEACOCK meat was eaten in ancient times.

Formerly, in the kitchen of Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi,(ASHOKA ) hundreds of thousands of animals were killed every day to make curry. But now with the writing of this Dharma edict only three creatures, two peacocks and a deer, are killed, and the deer not always. And in time, not even these three creatures will be killed.

At present the hunting of peacock is completely banned. There is a provision of imprisonment for any person from three years to seven years for hunting a peacock.

TIGER

Goddess Durga, a symbol of power in Hinduism, can always be seen riding a tiger. Since ancient times, the tiger has been considered a symbol of power and majesty. Due to strength, agility and immense power, the tiger has got the status of the national animal of India. Tigers were hunted indiscriminately during the British Raj, resulting in a sharp decline in their numbers. After independence, the focus was on increasing their numbers. Tiger Project started in 1973, many tiger reserves were established. Soon promising results began to appear. At present, about 75% of the world’s tigers are found in India. The tiger is a powerful icon of India’s cultural and natural heritage, and its survival has been a top priority for WWF-India since it was founded.

During the British period, a great hunter named Jim Corbett also did a lot of work on the conservation of tigers. A great hunter and protector ? It will sound a bit strange but it is the truth. Jim Corbett had hunted only man-eating tigers and leopards in his life. A tiger reserve has been named Jim Corbett National Park in his honour. Jim Corbett has also written some great books on man-eating tigers and their terror. Man -Eaters of Kumaou is one such book. The tiger is also a very shy animal, so there is very limited literature available on them. Those who are interested in tigers, rural life of Uttarakhand, ancient temples must read this book

Eight chapters of Varanasi that everyone must read.

GANGA MAIYA KI JAI

Born here of parents born here from parents the same, and their parents the same—-Walt Whitman.

SUBAH -E-BANARAS (MORNING IN VARANASI)

“Benares(Varanasi) is older than history, older than tradition, older even than  legend and looks twice as old as all of them put together “ MARK TWAIN.

So much has been written about Varanasi that to write anything one has to repeat the facts. In simple words, on the basis of my experience, I can say that one should try to understand Varanasi like a simple poetry. A poetry that has been present in its natural form in every period of time. If you have the patience to read poetry (information on internet has exhausted patience) if you have the passion to peep into history, then Banaras is the best. You may say that Varanasi is like onion – like onion has many folds, in the same way if we consider Varanasi city as onion, then there are many layers of history, it can be experienced with a little patience. The beginning of human civilization, the struggle against imperialism, or the present day, everything can be seen in Varanasi. Just a little ability to smell history, or a little fondness to feel history, Banaras is an unforgettable experience.

Go to Benares or Kashi, that most ancient of cities, and give ear to her murmuring. Does she not tell you of her immemorial past-of how she has gone on while empires have decayed, of Buddha who came to her with his new gospel, of the millions who have gone to her through the ages to find peace and solace? Old and hoary, decrepit, dirty, smelly, and yet much alive and full of the strength of ages, is Benares. Full of charm and wonder is Kashi, for in her eyes you can see the past of India, and in the murmur of her waters you can hear the voices of ages long gone by.

HOLY DIP (SUBAH -E-BANARAS(VARANASI)

HOLY DIP

“I think Banaras(KASHI,VARANASI) is one of the most wonderful places I have ever seen. It it has struck me that a westerner feels in Banaras very much as an oriental must feel while he is planted down in the middle of London”. (MARK TWAIN)

Holy Dip:- All the ancient cities of India are situated on the banks of rivers. This is because of the ease of transportation. Varanasi is no exception to this. The city of Varanasi is situated on the bank of the holy Ganges. There is a very ancient tradition of bathing in the Ganges river in the city of Varanasi. This tradition of getting up early in the morning and bathing in the Ganges continues even today. The day of an ordinary citizen of Banaras(BANARSI) begins with bathing in the Ganges. Hindus from all over the world come to Varanasi to take a holy dip in the Ganges. After taking a holy dip in the Ganges, the Ganges water is offered to Lord Shiva in temples. It feels amazing to be a part of this thousands of years old tradition. Hindus also have a tradition of burning the dead body . After burning the dead body, the ashes are flown into the holy rivers. Hindus from all corners of the world come to Varanasi to immerse the ashes of their beloved in the Ganges. In Hinduism, kindness to living beings is of great importance. After a holy bath in the Ganges, giving food to birds, monkeys, cows, dogs, is a common practice. There are also many Akhadas (Gymnasium) on the banks of the Ganges. Many youths go to these Akhadas to do exercise after taking a holy dip in the Ganges. You can understand what are the thoughts of the Indian people on any subject by simply visiting Varanasi, in other words it is a good place to feel the pulse of India. So much diversity and similarity is rarely seen anywhere else. Other than Varanasi, such a view can also be seen in Mahakumbh, but Mahakumbh holy bath is organized once in twelve years. For me, taking a holy dip in the Ganges has always been about feeling connected to my ancestors. I am only a link in the journey of life since eternity. The ashes of ancestors are contained in the Ganges. An inexhaustible link – from the past to the future, in the present I am part of this link. Sadhu, Sanyasi, Grihasta, old , young , woman, man, White, Brown South-Indian, Punjabi, Rajasthani, Bengali all at one place. What to say about the difference in language and clothing? A mini version of the country, and a wonderful experience.

There are about eighty-four ghats in Varanasi. Each has its own importance and history. The stairs of the ghat made of sandstone, every building is a completely different feeling. If one is not a native of Varanasi then it will be a very strange experience. Sandal paste on the forehead after the holy bath, Roli’s tika makes the bathing process complete. There is nothing to worry about the means of transportation in the morning. Means of transport are available in the morning from any corner of the city. Varanasi city wakes up in the morning. If you start the day with a cup of tea, or do yoga in the morning, then the experience is even better. There are many tea shops on the Ghat. Foreigners can also be seen doing yoga on the Ghats.

The marvelous beauty of the Ghats by boating


Boating

I love the area where the holy river Ganges flows in Varanasi. (SHIV Matsya Purana)

A panoramic view of the Ghats of Varanasi can be seen from a boat. The Ghats of Varanasi are like a painting on a huge canvas, in which time has filled innumerable colors. Boating is the only way to experience this huge painting and the colors of the times. By the way, for the best experience, one should travel from Assi Ghat to RajGhat. Boats are accessible at every Ghat. The boatmen have a general knowledge of the history of the Ghat, the most fun is to hear the stories related to the Ghats from these boatmen. In these stories, history, imagination, experiences passed down from generations, the art of telling stories that are now fading away can be seen. Google does not give information every time .If a particular jetty is preferred, these boatmen also stop the boat on the shore for a while at that Ghat on request. Many religious rituals of Hindus are also performed by boatmen, for this reason they also have good knowledge of religious customs. If someone knows how to row a boat, then by requesting them, he can row the boat himself. By the way, how hard or how easy it is to row a boat, everyone should row the boat at least five minutes to understand this. . Smaller boats are fine for one or two people, larger boats for a group. Boats are available for hire on time. If you want to listen to the sound of water with peace, and get acquainted with history, then a small boat is better. A bigger boat is better if you want to be a part of the enthusiasm of an energetic religious crowd. If you have time, try to be a part of both. Although rowing can be done at any time, but early morning is the best time.

GHAT

Going from one Ghat to another is like entering from one time block to another.

The city illumines the truth and reveals reality. It does not bring new wonders into the scope of vision, but enables one to see what is already there. Where this eternal light intersects the earth, it is known as Kashi”(Varanasi). (Diana L. Eck)

Just like the aroma of a delicious dish, Its color increases the desire to taste that dish manifold, but can never give the taste of that dish. The only way to taste the food is to taste it. Same is the case with the Ghats of Varanasi, The beauty of the Ghats of Varanasi can be seen by boating, but to feel it from the heart, it is necessary to spend time at the Ghat. Each Ghat is like a page of history, and the history of India passes through Banaras itself. All Ghats in Varanasi have their own importance, and it is not possible to write all about them here. For a bit more information, I would like to mention something here based on my experience.

ASSI GHAT :-Spiritual Paradise or Spiritual Disneyland ?

Assi Ghat:- According to mythological legends, the city got its name due to its settlement in the middle of rivers named Varuna and Assi. For this reason the city is known as Varanasi. At present Assi Ghat is very famous among foreigners. There are many exotic cuisine restaurants around the Ghat. All types of restaurants can be found here Italian, Spanish, French. Large numbers of foreigners visit Assi Ghat sometimes to feel the transformation of Assi Ghat into a Spiritual Disneyland . (I came to know this word from a French woman, she is very much influenced by Hindu religion and culture and has been living here for thirty years. She was angry with the present generation, both Indian and foreigners. She believes that the present generation is adopting yoga and spirituality as a fashion, as a fun, without being familiar with its basic meaning. By the way, every old generation generally has such complaints from the new generation.


VARANASI CITY OF SHIVA AND RAM

Tulsi Ghat: The culture of India cannot be imagined without Ram. Ramcharit Manas was composed by Tulsi Das on this Ghat. This was the composition of Tulsidas ji in the vernacular language of the Hindu religious text Ramayana. This was the time when the temples of Varanasi were being demolished by the Muslim imperialists, invaders. In order to instill confidence in the defeated Hindus again, Tulsidas started (RAMLEELA) based on the life of the most sacred character of the Hindus – Ram. Soon this RAMLEELA became popular . (Ramlila had an incomparable contribution in preserving the traditions and culture of Hinduism)Even today. It was Tulsi Das ji’s unique talent that after the destruction of Hindu temples, he converted every Hindu heart into a Hindu temple. There is no village or city in the whole India, especially in North India, where Ramlila is not staged during Dussehra. Tulsidas ji died here in 1623. The items used by Tulsi Das in his life are also stored here. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2019/10/07/islamic-imperialism-breaking-of-idols-hindu-struggle-past-present/

RAJA RAMCHANDRA KI JAI

The whole earth is the Sepulchre of famous men. They are Honoured not only by columns and inscriptions in their own land, but in foreign nations on memorials graven not on stone but in the hearts and minds of men .Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, 404 BCE.

SHIVALA BHAVAN NOW KNOWN AS CHET SINGH OR CHAIT SINGH GHAT

Chet Singh Ghat

The history which could have been written on 15th august 1781 was then written years later on 15th august 1947.

SHIVALA BHAVAN NOW KNOWN AS CHET SINGH OR CHAIT SINGH GHAT On the banks of the Ganges, Shivala Bhavan, now known as Chet Singh Ghat, the Maharaja of Benares was arrested and detained here by order of Warren Hastings. The disobedience of Maharaj by the soldiers of Warren Hastings provoked the soldiers of Maharaj’s army and then the people also joined the soldiers of Maharaj. The “Benares Rebellion” could not leave a significant mark in its history due to lack of vision and inability to take decisions in the King of Banares. In order to shed light on this incident and its importance, I have made the basis of the letters of The British officers of that time, their statements, Buildings and ruins connected with this incident in and around Benares. Sampurna Nand He were a great educationist and was also the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and the Governor of Rajasthan. (His great-grandfather Sadanand ji was the divan of King Chet Singh.)

“If Chet Singh had not run away at this time and would have attacked the garden of Madhodas, I would surely have been killed and thus rebellion would have spread all around”. Warren Hasting.

By the way, India’s first war of independence is considered to be 1857, and history does not give any place to it if it happens. But why the Varanasi Raja of Chet Singh Ghat and the East India Company struggle could not become a freedom struggle? This has definitely become a bitter lesson in history. This ghat is a witness to this even today that if the leadership becomes unconscious, then the public should take a decision with their own conscience. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2020/08/14/benares-rebellion-15august-1781/

RAJA HARISHCHANDRA STORY

Sita is typical of India— the idealized India. The question is not whether she ever lived, whether the story is history or not, we know that the ideal is there.

HARISHCHANDRA GHAT :- There are two ghats in Varanasi for the cremation of dead persons. Harishchandra and Manikarnika. Both the very ancient Ghats have their own importance. According to the Hindu scriptures, King Harishchandra was the ancestor of Lord Rama. This place was named Harishchandra after his name. There is hardly any other such story of truth, sacrifice and patience than this one mentioned below.

Harishchandra was the king of Ayodhya. Once Harishchandra saw a dream while he was sleeping that he has donated his kingdom to a sage Vishwamitra. Later the king forgot about this dream, after a few days Vishwamitra came to the king’s court and reminded the king about his dream. The king is always a symbol of justice. Harishchandra had a strong belief that the king should always set an exemplary example before the subjects, so he immediately left the kingdom, and gave the entire kingdom to the sage Vishwamitra. But Vishwamitra was not pleased even by this. And demanded Gurudakshina from the king. There was nothing left to give to the helpless king, he asked Vishwamitra for some time, and left his kingdom with his wife and son and went to Kashi. Here Harishchandra did not get work anywhere, as a result the king got the job of an assistant helping in the cremation of dead persons in a shamsan. The king’s wife started working as a maidservant with a moneylender. Once the king’s son Rohitasva was bitten by a snake, due to which he died. The queen took the body of her son and came to Shamasan Ghat for the last funeral. The husband of the queen( Harishchandra ) , who was working as an assistant in the funeral rites of the dead at the shamsan ghat, was deeply saddened to see the death of his son and the condition of the queen, but demanded the tax that was levied on burning the dead body. The queen said that I had nothing to pay in the form of tax, on which the king said that “He cannot allow the body to be burnt without tax, because it will violate the orders of their master”. The king told the queen that she should tear off a part of the sari she was wearing and pay it as tax. The poor queen had no other option, as a result, she tore the sari from the edge and wanted to pay the tax to the king. Suddenly sage Vishwamitra appeared.
Sage Vishwamitra returned life to the king’s son Rohitashva. The sage told King Harishchandra that he wanted to see to what extent the king was successful in following the truth. While returning the king’s kingdom, he called him a Godlike king.
This story inspired many people. Referring to a incident in his biography( The story of my experiments with truth) Mahatma Gandhi has told that in childhood, the story of King Harishchandra left an indelible impression on him, according to Mahatma Gandhi, he used to get emotional after remembering this story.

Dashashwamedh:- is also one of the most famous Ghats of Varanasi. It is estimated that in the second century AD, the famous Bhavashiva kings defeated the Kushanas and after performing Ten Ashvamedha sacrifices, took a bath here, due to which it was named Dashashvamedha. For some years, a grand ceremony of Ganga Aarti is organized here, in recent times a huge crowd gathers to see this aarti. Aarti of Dashaswamedh in the evening at the Ghats is the main attraction of Varanasi.
The electrification of the ghats at night gives a mesmerizing view, the beauty of the ghats, and the aartis are a sight to behold. It is my belief that there is a different fun in visiting the Ghat in the evening and at night, but the soul of Varanasi can be felt only in the morning.

THE LAST VOYAGE BENARES (VARANASI)
LAST JOURNEY (1883)
Edwin Lord American painter,
known for his paintings on eastern countries. A dead man is being taken by boat to Manikarnika for the last rites. In my opinion this is the best painting of Manikarnika ghat that was ever made, amazing color coordination, no effect of time, as if it is not a painting but a live telecast of Manikarnika on television. Wonderful. Even today a hand driven fan made of palm leaves is found in every house of Varanasi.
There has been no change in Manikarnika Ghat and the surrounding buildings even today. Even today in Varanasi similar clothes of sadhus, sacred saffron color of Hindus, boats are the hallmark of the Ghats of Banaras, even today these umbrellas (CANOPY) CHATRI(bamboo and palm leaf umbrella
) are used in the same way. everything still exists today.

CANOPY, CHATRI(bamboo and palm leaf umbrella)

MANIKARNIKA :- Undoubtedly Manikarnika is the greatest Samasan . It is believed that once Shiva and Parvati came here to bath. After taking a bath, Mata Parvati came to know that while taking bath, her earrings(karnphool) have fallen here, since then the place was named Manikarnika. This place has been considered very sacred among the Hindus.
Lakshmibai, (RANI OF JHANSI .INDIA’S WARRIOR QUEEN) born in Varanasi, was named Manikarnika after this place. (Her nick name was Manu for the same reason) . It is very difficult to predict when the practice of burning bodies on Manikarnika started. It is believed that the burning of dead bodies never stops here. Burning of dead bodies has continued here for thousands of years. In Hinduism, birth and death are considered to be a cycle of life, for this reason there is such a belief about Manikarnika that —- here, the stopping of dead cremation for any reason is a sign of destruction of creation. The death of the person born is certain, this is the absolute truth. Death as a celebration – the same philosophy is hidden in the Holi of Masan. Death is seen as a celebration in Manikarnika. For detailed information on this topic please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2021/03/26/rangbhari-ekadsi-masan-holiashes-of-dead-persons/

A woman selling vegetables in the street leading to the Ghat

PANCH -GANGA GHAT (BINDU MADHAV)

PANCH GANGA GHAT :-

Schools should introduce one more, very important, subject- The History of labor, the brilliant and tragic history of man’s struggle with the natural world, the history of his discoveries and inventions, his victories and triumphs over the forces of nature.” And a little later he wrote: “I believe very strongly in miracles made by the intelligence and imagination of man; I know no other miracles.” (MAXIM GORKY)

Panch-Ganga is among the five major and oldest Ghats of Varanasi. Hindus believe that Panch-Ganga Ghat is situated at the confluence of five holy rivers.

(YATHA, KIRNA, DHUTPAPA, SARASWATI, GANGA & YAMUNA) There was also a custom of drinking Ganges water here by the newly married couple after marriage. This is like a European practice of drinking hypocross, or musket. Its ancient name was Bindumadhav Ghat. This Ghat got its name from the ancient temple of Bindumadhav (Lord Vishnu). In the seventeenth century, this ancient temple was demolished by the Islamic ruler Aurangzeb, and a mosque was built from the rubble of that ancient temple. Since then the name of this place became Panch Ganga in place of Bindumadhav.With the tradition of bathing in the holy river on special occasions, and with such small habits, did our ancestors manage to save their religion! Could we save our religion only with the help of our culture! Who were those people who not only kept their traditions alive even after the destruction of their temples, idols of Gods but also defeated foreign invaders? For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2021/01/18/makar-sankranti-is-an-ancient-hindu-festival-or-the-burden-of-old-tradition/

He purged by his sword the land of Hind from the filth of infidelity… and the impurity of idol-worship, and left not one temple standing… When he arrived at Mirat [Meerut] all the idol temples were converted into mosques. He then marched and encamped under the fort of Delhi. The city and its vicinity were freed from idols and idol-worship, and in the sanctuaries, mosques were raised by the worshippers of one God. The royal army proceeded towards Benares,(Varanasi) which is the centre of the country of Hind, and here they destroyed nearly one thousand temples. (Sadruddin Muhammad Hasan Nizami)

RAJ GHAT :-The crossroad of history (meeting center of different periods)

RAJ GHAT:- Almost all the great historians are of the opinion that ancient Varanasi city was near Rajghat. Near Rajghat, the Varuna River meets with the Ganges River, due to this river, the city got its name Varanasi. And in ancient times This river got its name due to the Varan (a species of trees) The river Varanavati is mentioned in the Atharva Veda.( period:-1000-900BCE) . Many historians, archaeologists have estimated from the material obtained from the excavation of Rajghat that the ancient Varanasi city existed in 11th or 12 century BC. At present there is also an important bridge built during the British era, at present it is known as Malviya bridge . During British rule it was called Dufferin Bridge. Built over the Ganges on the Grand Trunk Road from Dhaka to Peshawar. This route is the oldest and longest-distance route in South Asia. In ancient times it was known as Uttar Marg, Sadak -e -Azam Road in Mughal era, and Grand Trunk Road in British period. About one kilometer from the Rajghat bridge is the confluence of the Varuna and Ganga rivers. From Rajghat towards Varuna-Ganga Sangam one has to go through the educational institutions of Krishnamurti Foundation. This is a beautiful road. Magnificent buildings of educational institutions and covered with giant trees. The area of ​​confluence comes as soon as the chain of educational institutions and giant trees ends. The entire area covered by trees in this area gives a magical feel. If you leave the slopes of the Sangam and go straight, you will have to cross a small culvert and meet another historical ancient route — Panchkoshi Marg. The confluence of holy rivers is always considered a sacred place in Hinduism. The oldest temples of Hindus are built at the confluence of such rivers. There is also an ancient temple here which is known as Adikeshav. It is difficult to say when this temple came into existence.

ADIKESHAV

The temple is mentioned in the copper plates of the Gahadavalas who ruled Varanasi from the eighth to the eleventh century. Similarly, at the holy confluence of Ganga-Gomti, there is an ancient temple of Markandeya Mahadev in Varanasi. The mention of this temple is also found in the holy book of Hindus Mahabharata. For more information about this subject please visit :-https://nithinks.com/2021/03/14/mahashivratrishiv-barat-and-varanasi/ When the Adi Keshav temple would have been built can only be predicted. All the major temples of Banaras were demolished in 1193-1194. Paganism is a crime in Islam. Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khan got the right to demolish and plunder the worship house of Hindus, Buddhists from the Gangetic plain, he accomplished this with complete cruelty. This temple was rebuilt in 1807 by Sindhia of Gwalior. Now there is a sense of reverence in this holy temple but nothing is left from the point of view of art. No tyrant can take away the feeling of faith. For more information about this subject please visit :-https://nithinks.com/2021/03/10/dawn-of-civilization-and-shiva-shiva-ganga-varanasi/ Assi Ghat presents a global image, of a changing India, or of the globalization of the world. Tulsi Das, Benimadhav, and Adi Keshav are witnesses to the struggle of Hindus against imperialism, Chet Singh Ghat is a living example of the importance of leadership, while Dashaswamedh, Harishchandra, and Manikarnika are living symbols of Hindu values ​​for thousands of years.

LIGHT OF ASIA

SARANATH :- Varanasi, is also called KASHI(ONE OF THE OLD NAME). The word Kashi has its origin from the word Kash. Its means light. Here light does not mean just light. Light here means “Light of knowledge”. Nalanda, Taxila, and Varanasi were the major centers of education in ancient times. After attaining enlightenment, Gautam Buddha gave his first sermon here in Sarnath. In human history, this teaching is known as the Dharma Chakra Pravartan.OR “TURNING OF THE WHEEL OF THE MORAL LAW” By the time of Gautam Buddha, Varanasi had lost its glory to a great extent. But till then Varanasi was so glorified, and Varanasi had the pride of being the capital of all-knowledge that Gautam Buddha chose this city for the first sermon. Like King Harishchandra, Gautam Buddha was also a Kshatriya king. With his teachings, Gautam Buddha made Hinduism more acceptable, and versatile. Opposed the increasing rituals in Hinduism, and laid great emphasis on the concept of non-violence of Hinduism. Western historians have told Buddhism to be separate from Hinduism, there is no basis for this. In India, where Hindus have a God like reverence for Gautam Buddha, Japan, China, Sri Lanka, Korea and the countries of South East Asia accept the teachings of Gautam Buddha as a great master. Many teachings of Hinduism have been carried over to Buddhism.

“Victory breeds hatred, for the conquered is unhappy”. “You cannot travel the path until you have become the path itself.”

“As I am, so are these.
As are these, so am I.’
Drawing the parallel to yourself,
neither kill nor get others to kill”

THE ASHOKA LION CAPITAL OF SARANATH

The Ashoka emblem is the national emblem of India. It has been taken from the Ashoka Lot found in Sarnath. It has four lions standing facing all the four directions. The Dhamma Chakra was built on these four lions, which was found in many pieces in the excavation. These four lions are standing on a solid base. There are four animals on this circular base. Each of these four animals has its place as a symbol of Buddhism: the lion represents Sakyasimha, lion of the Sakya clan, with the voice of a lion; the elephant signifies Sakyamuni entering the womb of his mother Mayadevi in her dream, but also Sakyamuni as the tamer of wild elephants; the horse, besides being a symbol of temporal royalty, is the vehicle that carried Prince Siddhartha on his journey of renunciation; finally, the bull is the great inseminator, here symbolising the Buddha’s teaching, the Dharma. The horse and elephant together support the Wheel-turning Monarch In the center is the Dhammachakra. (ASHOK THE SEARCH FOR INDIA’S LOST EMPEROR.page 334.335) This twenty four spoked wheel is situated in the middle of the national flag of India. Presently this Ashoka’s lot is preserved in the museum of Sarnath. Probably this is India’s first onsite museum.

In this post I have explained Varanasi on the basis of my experience. Every person has a different point of view. I tried to introduce people to some facts of this ancient city, and important events of Indian history. Varanasi is a wonderful city — full of contradictions, with many opinions, ideologies. This diversity gives it the status of eternal city. At present there is hardly any country whose residents do not reside here. The history of Varanasi gives a glimpse of the history of the entire culture of India. My view is that History is not just a lifeless structure of dry events, in this we can see the reactions of the society and religious expressions also completely, and Varanasi is a wonderful work (kriti)of this subject. For more information about this subject please visit:- https://nithinks.com/2019/12/31/oldest-living-city-happy-new-year/

Dawn of civilization and shiva (SHIVA, GANGA & VARANASI)

In Shiva, who is the Lord of this Universe, Or Vishnu, its soul, I see no difference, But still, my love is for Him

Who has the young moon on His forehead.

Satyam Shivam Sundaram

Oh when will that time come,

When in a beautiful full-moon night, Sitting on the banks of some river, And in a calm, yet high notes repeating

“Shiva! Shiva! Shiva!” All my feelings will come out through the eyes In the form of tears?

When, wearing only the Kaupina, Lying on the sands of the holy Ganges in Benares,(Varanasi) When shall I weep aloud, “O Lord of ghouls”, Saying this, and whole days shall pass like moments?(Swami Vivekananda -The Complete Works)

Dawn of human civilization:- The unique relationship between Shiva, Ganga and Varanasi.

In Hinduism, there has been an ancient concept of city God and village God. According to this concept, there is a belief in Hinduism that every city, village was built by a different deity for people to live. Perhaps our expression of economic, social freedom of the villages also developed from similar sentiments. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2020/12/03/hindu-philosophy-and-the-importance-of-peace-9-11-1893-9-112001/

Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru

Glimpses of world history: ———– “Some old inscriptions from south India tell us how the members of the panchayats were elected, their qualifications and disqualifications. If any member did not render accounts of public funds he was disqualified.  Another very interesting rule seems to have been that near relative of members were disqualified from office. How excellent if this could be enforced now in all our councils and assemblies and municipalities.” (Jawaharlal Nehru)

This question will probably be one of the most difficult questions in human history, who first came into existence in Shiva, Varanasi and Ganga? It is impossible for a very ordinary person like me to answer this question, and I have no such attempt. My effort is just an attempt to shed light on the sacred relationship of Varanasi, Ganga and Shiva and its historicity. Mark Twain is probably the best on this subject.

As we mentioned the city deity – Shiva is honored with the city deity of Varanasi (Banaras, Kashi) is one of the oldest cities in the world. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2019/12/31/oldest-living-city-happy-new-year/ The Ganges river goes a long way until it reaches the sea from the Himalayas.(About fifteen hundred miles) Many ancient and religious cities of North India developed on the banks of river Ganges.(HARIDWAR,PRAYAGRAJ-Allahabad, KANPUR,VARANASI,MIRZAPUR,FARRUKHABAD,KANNAUJ,BHAGALPUR,PATNA,HAJIPUR,MUNGER,KOLKATA etc.) But the way the river Ganges behaves in Varanasi is not seen anywhere else. For more information about this subject please visit :-

Rajghat :- Remains of ancient Varanasi city found in archaeological excavations.
Lal Khan’s tomb amidst these ruins shows the influence of Islamic imperialism on Varanasi. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2019/10/07/islamic-imperialism-breaking-of-idols-hindu-struggle-past-present/

Almost all the great historians are of the opinion that ancient Varanasi city was near Rajghat. Near Rajghat, the Varuna River meets with the Ganges River, due to this river, the city got its name Varanasi. And in ancient times this river got its name due to the Varan (a species of trees) The river Varanavati is mentioned in the Atharva Veda.( period:-1000-900BCE)

Standing on a bridge built on the river Ganges near Rajghat, the crescent structure of Varanasi city is clearly visible. Always has a tradition of showing the Ganges River and the crescent moon on the forehead of Shiva. Beyond the imagination, amazing thousands of years old Shiva’s image, the unique SANGAM (GANGES MEETS VARANASI) of Ganges and Varanasi can be seen even today. Our ancestors, who had imagined such beautiful, accurate images of Shiva’s human form thousands of years ago, would undoubtedly have good knowledge of geography, mathematics and literature. It is a miracle that the seals of many Shiva temples have been found in the excavation of Rajghat, which has confirmed the Shiva-temples mentioned in the Puranas.(DATE:c 250 CE )

I love the area where the holy river Ganges flows in Varanasi. (SHIV Matsya Purana)

Many historians, archaeologists have estimated from the material obtained from the excavation of Rajghat that the ancient Varanasi city existed in 11th or 12 century BC.

Born here of parents born here from parents the same, and their parents the same—-Walt Whitman

Markandeya Mahadev: – On the border of Varanasi-Ghazipur, another holy river, Gomti, meets with the Ganges. The place of this confluence is located in a village called Kathy. The importance of this place, and the antiquity can be inferred from the fact that the description of this temple is also mentioned in Mahabharata. —-

‘मार्कण्डेयस्य राजेन्द्रतीर्थमासाद्य दुर्लभम् ।

गोमतीगङ्गयोश्चैव सङ्गमे लोकविश्रुते॥

(MAHABHARAT -PAGE 241)

The temple building has been changing over time, some historians believe that the Sangam place was also at some distance in ancient times. I personally feel very attached to this temple, because my mother’s village is near this temple, she used to come here since childhood, her habit continued in the later days as well. It seems to me that my mother used to feel connected to her ancestors in this temple more than religious significance.

My father was a civil engineer, (He was a graduate of India’s most prestigious civil engineering college and Asia’s oldest civil engineering college, Roorkee.)He also had reverence for the temple. Father’s scientific thinking about rivers, soils, and excellent knowledge of history used to make the journey to any historical, religion place interesting.


Visiting this temple in Shiva-Ratri is of great importance. Many stories related to Hinduism, are prevalent about this temple. Many stories related to here are also mentioned in Hindu, Buddhism, Jainism religious texts. There is a deep reverence for the temple in the surrounding area.

This freedom came from the feeling that all human lives were interrelated, a certainty that they flowed into each other—a happy feeling that all events took place not only on the earth, in which the dead are buried, but also in some other region which some called the Kingdom of God, others history, and still others by some other name.(Boris Pasternak)

Veereshwar Mahadev: – The mention of this temple of Varanasi is also found in the Kashi Khanda. This temple was of great importance in ancient times. This temple is situated on the banks of the Ganges near Scindia Ghat. The event of the birth of Swami Vivekananda, the world-renowned philosopher of modern times, is also associated with this temple. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2020/07/05/the-unknown-life-of-swami-vivekananda/

Birth of Vivekananda, Shiva temple and Varanasi.

Bhubaneswari was worshiping lord shiva in one of the houses in that locality. At the close of the her worship , she prayed to Shiva everyday while offering pranam, “o Shiva , give me a son on my lap.” she had a few daughters already . but how could she live without a son? so, she offered daily worship to Shiva for a son . she had even asked one of her old relatives at Benares (Varanasi)to offer daily worship to Vireswar Shiva there on her behalf . god heeds to whatever is asked of him with devotion in a simple heart . Bhubaneswari’s prayer was also granted. In the early morning of January 12,1863, she gave birth to a son .the child was named  Vireswar after Vireswar Shiva as his mother believed that she was granted her son as a boon from the lord . but the name was too difficult to be used as a nickname.so everybody in the house used to call him as a Biley.  he was named NarendraNath Dutta at the annaprasshana ceremony but still he remained the same Biley for all .(Vivekananda for children -publisher : Sri Ramkrishna Math Chennai)

Panch Ganga Ghat: – a is among the five major and oldest ghats of Varanasi. This place is described in the Matsya Purana as an area of ​​influence of Vishnu .Its ancient name was Bindumadhav Ghat. This Ghat got its name from the ancient temple of Bindumadhav (Lord Vishnu). In the seventeenth century, this ancient temple was demolished by the Islamic ruler Aurangzeb, and a mosque was built from the rubble of that ancient temple. Since then the name of this place became Panch Ganga in place of Bindumadhav. For more information about this subject please visit :—

Indus Valley Civilization :- (2350-2000 BCE)

The remains of the Indus Valley Civilization, Shiva are also there. Shiva also has a name Pashupati. Pashupati means God of animals. Under the Indus Valley Civilization, a stone seal was found at a place called Mohenjodaro, in which Shiva is in a yoga pose (AADI YOGI) and is surrounded by a variety of animals. Shiva’s crown is like a trident, this seal is kept in the museum of Delhi.

One thing is clear that according to our convenience, we call Shiva by religion, civilization culture, deity and nature by any name Shiva is prevalent among all. Man himself is a creation of prehistoric times. The imagination of man’s prehistoric period, the sequence of development, Shiva is included in himself.
According to Hindu religion philosophy, God is omnipresent. Shiva is the history of human development journey from the beginning of nature till date. Shiva is the symbol of power – the combined power. Shiva is the symbol of any endeavor for the welfare of human life.
Shiva is the symbol of the communication of spiritual power. Shiva is the basis of nature and human relations, , and these cooperation.