Why did Buddha choose Kashi(Varanasi) to deliver his first sermon?


Lord Buddha attained enlightenment after years of rigorous meditation under a Peepal tree on the banks of the Niranjana River. Immediately after attaining enlightenment he came to Kashi to deliver his first sermon.

@ Why did Lord Buddha come to Kashi immediately after attaining enlightenment?

@ Why did Lord Buddha choose Kashi to deliver his first sermon?

Some of the principal reasons why Buddha chose Kashi, are as follows.

@ Buddha had come to Kashi many times before and he was well aware of the nature of the people of Kashi.

Kashi was never an unknown city to Buddha.

Even before Gautam Buddha incarnated on Earth, Kashi was a very important city on social, economic and cultural backgrounds.

Many changes in the Hindu religion started from Kashi.
New practices were started by many Chakravarti kings (The title of Chakravarti Samrat was given to those kings who brought epoch-making changes in the society).only after performing Yagya in Kashi, King Prithu is one of the examples of such kings.

According to Hindu beliefs, Prithu was the first king of India and he performed many yagyas in the Sarnath region of Kashi. It is notable that Buddha’s first sermon is also known as Dharma Chakra Parivartan and Buddha was a prince before leaving home.


Buddha never said that he was the founder of a different religion named Buddhism.

He is never even portrayed as the father of Buddhism in Buddhist literature.

It becomes quite clear from these facts that Buddha was not laying the foundation of any new religion, but was leading a movement against the evil practices of Hinduism. Buddhism was actually a movement against religious evils.

Buddha tried to remove as many evils as he possibly could from Hinduism which had developed along with time in Hinduism.

Preaching Buddha-5th century CE-Sandstone-Sarnath

The only goal of Buddha was the welfare of as many people as possible. About 600 years before the birth of Christ, Buddha had developed these wonderful ideas of everyone’s well being and dedicated his whole life for public welfare.

This was probably the world’s first movement to remove social inequality and injustice.

Buddhism is also considered to be the first missionary religion which was based on the teachings of Buddha and not in opposition to any other religion.

In the past, many movements inspired by the betterment of Hindu religion and the spirit of public welfare, efforts for religious reform had already taken place in Kashi before, and so this might be one of the reason why Buddha chose Kashi for giving his sermon.



Kashi has always been a city of learning. Since ancient times, it has been considered the capital of all knowledge.

Even before the advent of Buddha, some new places of learning had developed or were developing in India and were posing a challenge to Kashi, but still the people of Kashi didn’t lose their love for knowledge and were open to new ideas. This is another reason why Buddha chose Kashi to sow the seeds of his thoughts.


Kashi is a sacred place for all Hindu cults, Shaiva, Vaishnava, Snake worship, Nag worship, Gandharva worship, Prakriti worship etc. and for this reason people from all places of the country used to gather here in Kashi.
Buddha could have quickly and easily propagated his teachings to all parts of the country through the people who came to Kashi from different parts of the country if he delivered his sermon here . This is another good reason why Buddha chose Kashi for TURNING THE WHEEL OF DHARMA.


In ancient India, almost all the major routes of North India used to pass through Kashi, not only this, almost all the major cities of India were settled on the banks of the rivers, due to which Kashi was well connected with all means of transport.
When Buddha urged Buddhist monks to go far for the propagation of his teachings, Kashi’s better transportation facility helped Buddhist monks a lot in spreading Buddha’s teachings.


The advanced trade of Kashi is mentioned in almost all the literature available before Buddha. All the businesses of that period were flourishing in Kashi. Kashi’s textile business had no match.

Cotton was produced very well in the rural areas of Kashi and the muslin of Kashi was world-famous.

The clothes in which Egyptian mummies were wrapped were made in India only and it is quite possible that they were made right here in Kashi itself.

RAJGHAT ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE( archaeological remains dating as old as 800 BCE to 18 century CE.)

A large number of foreign coins and seals have been found in Rajghat, the oldest area of ​​Varanasi. Such a large number of foreign coins is a strong indication that even before Buddha, a large number of foreign traders used to reside in Kashi.

The message of Buddha soon spread beyond the country’s borders through these merchants. The first sermon given to Buddha’s first five disciples in Kashi soon spread to almost entire Asia including China, and Japan.

Foreign traders must have also made a huge contribution in the propagation of the teachings of Buddha. Taking into account all of these facts it becomes quite clear that Kashi was rather an ideal choice for Buddha to deliver his sermon.



The oldest remains of Varanasi city have been found in the Rajghat area itself. From the remains found in the excavations by archaeologists, it appears that there were human settlements here EVEN BEFORE 800 BCE. In the excavation at Rajghat, many Punch marked coins and black earthenware have also been found. From these articles it is concluded that-:

  1. Before the foundations of Mauryan Empire were layed (The Mauryan Empire, formed around 321 B.C.E. and ended in 185 B.C.E), Varanasi city was already completely established in Rajghat.
  2. Various coins received before the Mauryan Empire period show that by that time Rajghat had already made a lot of progress in the field of trade.


Ancient Banaras near Rajghat is also mentioned in religious texts of Hindus, Buddhist and Jain.

The confluence of rivers (SANGAM) is considered very sacred in Hinduism, in the Rajghat area is the confluence of the Ganges and Varuna rivers. At one place in the RIGVEDA (written around 1500-1000 BCE) there is a mention of the river VARNAVATI. Varnavati is very likely the ancient name of Varuna river. The area between Varuna and Asi river was later known as Varanasi.


A very important and historical route passes through Varanasi (Rajghat area) which we know today as Grand Trunk Road. This road starts from Chittagong in Bangladesh and goes through Lahore to Kabul in Afghanistan.

During the Mughal period it was known as BADSHAHI SADAK. It was the backbone of India’s trade during the reign of CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA. (The very first ruler of The Mauryan Empire ~ 321-297 BC)
The description of this route is found at many places in the ancient texts of the Hindus. It is also described in the Mahabharata, back then this route was known as UTTARPATH. The Indian Grand Trunk Road portion is also a part of the ambitious Golden Quadrilateral project.


According to a Jataka story, Gautam Buddha after attaining enlightenment in Gaya came to a place called Sarnath in Varanasi by this route itself and gave his first sermon.


The Rajghat area was known as Bag-Badshah during the Mughal period. During this period, except for the construction of some graveyards, mosques, no remarkable construction work is seen in this area.

During this period only mosques were built by demolishing Hindu temples whose ruins are still present today. If you want to know more about such temples and mosques then please visit this blog post of mine:- https://nithinks.com/2021/12/06/the-search-for-hindus-lost-temples-in-the-city-of-templesvaranasi/ For almost 600 years, there was no such construction in Raj Ghat which could be mentioned or is worth mentioning.


In 1853, rail service was started in India by the Britishers. After the First War of Independence in 1857, the British people came to know about the importance of postal services, Telegram and railways. An excellent postal system, and means of transport were needed to control this vast territory.

The British wanted such a modern means of transport in India that can transport them to any part of the country, within 24 hours. They thought, this was important to suppress rebellions if any of them are started. Undoubtedly this was possible only through railway.
Hundreds of big and small bridges were constructed in the country while the railway network was being layed down. At the same time, the construction work of the railway bridge over the Ganges river in Varanasi was completed.


Before the construction of Dufferin Bridge was completed, there used to be a temporary pontoon bridge at the Raj Ghat. During the rainy season, it was removed when the water level of the river Ganges rose.  

‘Views of Benares, from the River Side’ taken by Brajo Gopal Bromochary in 1869.



@ It is a two-floor bridge. It was the first bridge in the Indian sub-continent, which had a railroad both on the top and the bottom.

@ The construction of the bridge started in 1882 AD and was completed in 1887 AD.

@ The cost of construction of this bridge was Rs 750,000. This was a huge amount in the 1880s.

@ The length of this bridge (Rajghat to Padav) built on the river Ganges is 1048.5 meters.

@ Being situated in the Rajghat area of ​​Varanasi, this bridge has been known by the local people as “Rajghat bridge” since its construction. Even today the local residents know it by the name of Rajghat bridge.


O.& R. R. C0 — This bridge was built jointly by the engineers of Oudh (Awadh) and Rohilkhand.

THE DUFFERIN BRIDGE – This bridge was inaugurated by Lord Dufferin on 16th December 1887 AD. From that day onwards this bridge was named the Dufferin Bridge.

Malviya Bridge :- After independence, on 5 December 1947, the name of this bridge was changed to Malviya Bridge after Madan Mohan Malviya.

There are stairs leading from the Kashi railway station to the ghat. (towards the river Ganges)

A small bridge like structure(can be clearly seen in the image above) has been created for the convenience of rail passengers so that they can go directly from the bridge to the Kashi railway station. Even today this bridge like structure is in use by pedestrians and cyclists.

There were always gunmen stationed here to protect the bridge during the British Raj.

A book namedDufferin’s Bridge” was published from Banaras in 1887 AD, only 50 copies of this book were printed. In this book, plan maps and some other important information related to the bridge was mentioned.


In 1781, the people of Varanasi revolted against the East India Company and hundreds of British soldiers were killed in this rebellion, many of them were killed in Padao and Ramnagar (near Raj Ghat). If you don’t have any Idea about Benares rebellion then I will recommend you to read this blog post of mine where I have mentioned all the details about it that I could possibly find :- https://nithinks.com/2020/08/14/benares-rebellion-15august-1781/
The British had to bear heavy losses in the first freedom struggle of 1857 as well. Learning from these incidents, the British avoided any kind of interference in the religious affairs of the Hindus.
On the other hand Hindus also viewed any British action with great suspicion.

Hindus were not happy even at the time of the construction of this bridge, many Hindus believed that the Ganges river holds the status of the most sacred river in Hinduism and the British wanted to humiliate the Hindus by building a bridge over it.

It was believed by many that the construction of this bridge could enrage Ganga Maiya and spread an epidemic. In order to deal with these problems, the British requested the king of Banaras to explain to his subjects that Hindu religion would not be harmed in any way by the construction of the bridge, and instead it would make the lives of the pilgrims much easy. Initially there was opposition, but gradually the voices of the protest subsided and the people of Varanasi accepted this new change.


These pillars date back to 8th- 9th century or perhaps even earlier. These pillars of the grand temple are now a part of the mosque.


He purged by his sword the land of Hind (INDIA) from the filth of infidelity… and the impurity of idol-worship, and left not one temple standing… When he arrived at Mirat (Meerut) all the idol temples were converted into mosques. He then marched and encamped under the fort of Delhi. The city and its vicinity were freed from idols and idol-worship, and in the sanctuaries, mosques were raised by the worshippers of one God. The royal army proceeded towards Benares,(VARANASI) which is the Centre of the country of Hind, and here they destroyed nearly one thousand temples. The temples were converted into mosques and abodes of goodness, and the ejaculations of bead-counters and voices of summoners to prayer ascended to high heaven, and the very name of idolatry was annihilated.

ISLAMIC IDEOLOGY WAS LIKE A tremendous storm of destruction for Varanasi, which was the center of many religions like Hindu, Buddhist, Jain … The land where Mahatma Buddha had preached non-violence, peace, public welfare to the world, was facing immense destruction from the havoc of an ideology that emanated from Arabia.

Countless temples were demolished by Muslim invaders, all over India, some of the most prominent Hindu temples, which were destroyed by Muslim invaders, were later rebuilt. But many temples are still mosques and remain unchanged.

Temples in Varanasi, the holiest city of Hindus, were demolished for the first time in 1193-94CE. The Hindus had to struggle a long time to get their temples back. Surprisingly, many of the temples that were demolished in 1193-94CE and from whose rubble the mosques were built on the same site are still reminiscent of Islamic imperialism.

After independence, the history of India was no longer independent. Nehruvian, Marxist fake historians wrote a fake history of India, the whole game of historiography in India was inspired by the political-history writings of Communist historians of the Soviet Union.

All the civilizations of the world have seen defeat, cruelty, blood, tears, and learned from their mistakes.

History has stopped. Nothing exists except an endless present in which the Party is always right.” GEORGE ORWELL

There are many such mosques, dargahs in Banaras(Varanasi) which have been built from the ruins of the temple. But in this post I decided to focus on the region around Rajghat for a couple of reasons listed below.


  1. Varanasi is not only the holiest city of Hindus, but it also ranks among the oldest cities in the world, the oldest signs of this ancient city are found in the Rajghat area, undoubtedly the most famous, sacred and ancient temples of Hindus must have existed in this area.
  2. When Qutbuddin Aibak and, Sahabuddin Ghori conquered Banaras in 1194, the king of Banaras was Jaichand. Many such temples fall in the Rajghat area, which had immense reverence for Jaichand.


WHO WAS JAICHAND? Jaichand was a powerful Gaharwar Rajput king of eastern Uttar Pradesh and some parts of Bihar. Jaichand’s father was Vijaychandra and grandfather was Govindchandra. Even today, a large population of Gaharwar Rajputs is found in Varanasi and nearby towns. Unfortunately, Jaichand is counted amongst the most traitor kings of India and it is believed that Jaichand had an old enmity with another famous Indian king of that time, Prithviraj Chauhan.

It is considered that Mohammed Ghauri was invited to India by Jaichand to humiliate and to defeat Prithviraj Chauhan. There is no evidence on this subject, but no doubt these things have ruined the reputation of Jaichand.

In the present world scenario, it becomes necessary to unveil the false history and learn from experience. In recent times, it is necessary to know the history of these temples to understand the incidents like the unprovoked killing of Hindus in Bangladesh, Pakistan the destruction of a large number of Hindu temples, the rise of Islamic extremism in West Bengal.

A Knowledge of History, even of the darkest past, can be quite useful, even for the future. (Anatoly Markusha, Miracles on wheels)

Rajghat:- Here the remains dating back to 2000 BC have been found in excavations.


According to Hindu ancient scriptures, the ancient city of Varanasi was settled at the present Rajghat place. In recent years many ancient remains of Varanasi city have been found in various excavations near Rajghat.

Surprisingly, many times the temples mentioned in the ancient scriptures have been confirmed on the basis of the remains found here. The city of Varanasi is named after the Varuna and Asi rivers, Varuna and Asi thus Varanasi. Close to Rajghat, the Varuna river confluences with the Ganges, the most major and important river of Varanasi.

Some ancient Hindu temples which are now mosques or have been rebuilt are located near Raj Ghat. Rajghat comes in the oldest area of Varanasi, this is also one of the reasons why I chose this area for my research.


In 1194 CE this temple was demolished and a mosque was built over it. Even today, these pillars of the temple seem to convey the story of the destruction of temples and the massacre of Hindus.

72 PILLARED MOSQUE:- There is a mosque near Raj Ghat which is known as the 72 pillared mosque. The structure of this mosque is completely different from the normal ones. There is a hall inside this mosque, which is about 150 FEET LONG AND 25 FEET WIDE .

There are 72 very beautiful pillars in this hall, the geometric art made on these pillars is worth seeing. These pillars date back to the Gaharwar kingdom or perhaps even earlier.

All the pillars are made of sandstone. Paintwork has been done on all the pillars. For this reason, the beauty of the age-old ancient art engraved on it looks diminished. For the conquering religion, the defeated religion and civilization has no meaning, according to Islamic theology, idol worship is a serious crime and this temple had to bear the punishment for this crime, The Muslims around the mosque were very humble and were also eager to help me, but they were prejudiced, they had their own arguments.

They all agreed that the pillars of the mosque were ancient but they all believed that the Islamic artists who came with Qutubuddin Aibak and Ghori had built them.

Some had philosophical arguments, they were adamant that the pillars of the mosque were built by jinns. (Supernatural creatures in early pre-Islamic Arabian religious systems).

When they realized that I was Hindu, they gave a suspicious expression. I even had to resort to a little lie to click the photos of the interior of this mosque.


Adi means ancient, The word Keshav is synonymous with Lord Vishnu. Adi Keshav means the ancient temple of Lord Vishnu. It is known from the Gaharwal inscriptions that the temple of Adi Keshav at Adi Keshav Ghat has a great reputation.


ADI KESHAV GHAT:- ACCORDING TO HINDU RELIGIOUS TEXTS The importance of Adi Keshav Ghat has been mentioned in Kashi Khanda, Matsya Purana and Linga Purana.

This ghat is also known as Varuna Sangam Ghat. According to Kashi Khanda after being advised by Lord Shiva, Lord Vishnu put his first step in Kashi at this ghat After he washed his foot he left a foot impression on the ghat where he installed a Statue of his own.

This site is also known as Padodak Tirtha. It is believed that a holy dip at this spot helps to free the devotees from the circle of life and death. Bhudevi, Sridevi and Keshavaditya are also worshipped at this temple. The temple of Adi Keshav has a Sabha mandap and a Garbha Griha. This place has been mentioned in the writings of Chandradev, Madanpal, Govindchand, and Jaichand.


This ghat exists even today at the confluence of the rivers Varuna and Ganga. Adi Keshav Temple is built near this Ghat.

It is known from a copper plate inscription from Chandravati that is dated back to 1100 A.D that Chandradeva (King of Chandravati) donated gold and silver, with thousand seals, at the Adi Keshav temple and donated thirty-two villages as Brahmadeya (land gifted to Brahamanas) to five hundred brahmins.

According to Kamauli copper plate inscription, in 1168 AD, after taking a bath at Adikeshwar Ghat, with the permission of his father Vijaychand, Jaichand took initiation in the service of Krishna devotion and donated a village to Prahraj Sharma on the occasion.

The second copper plate inscription about Jaichand also shows that he was a devotee of Adikeshav. An inscription by Govindchand also reveals some Shaiva and Vaishnava temples of the Gahadwal-era.

After bathing in the Ganges in Banaras, he donated a house situated in the city of Banaras to the great Dayin Sharma. All these historical details show that the Adi Keshav temple was an ancient temple, this temple had a great reputation and the ruler of this area at that time – Jaichand, had a deep attachment to it.

The most ancient remains of the Adi Keshav Temple.

Adi Keshav temple was demolished in the Islamic invasion of 1194AD. Hindus in Varanasi tried to get back their temples as soon as they got the right opportunity, but there is no evidence whether or not this temple was reconstructed, the reason why it wasn’t reconstructed is possibly because Jaichand was associated with it and he is considered as a traitor. Or perhaps over a period of time, due to the increase in the number of Shiva-temples in Varanasi, the importance of this temple decreased as it was dedicated to Lord Vishnu not Shiva. Or maybe due to the increase in the population of the city in other areas, the popularity of this temple was affected. It is difficult to say anything about this temple as there are no historical documents available on this subject.

Then afterwards this temple was rebuilt in 1807AD by Sindhia of Gwalior. At present, the lowest part of the temple seems to be ancient, and from it’s appearance, it appears to be built in Gaharwar era. The upper part of the temple, built-in 1807, maybe important from the point of view of reverence, but the ancient art of temples is missing in this temple.


Near Bhainsa Sur Ghat, there is Lakkar Shah Mazar and Masjid. This mazar is adjacent to the main road and is built at a height of 15-20 feet. From seeing it, it seems that this tomb is built on the ruins of a Hindu temple.
On top of the platform made of stone, it seems that someone has placed a separate tomb and a building built above the tomb.
Looking at this tomb, it seems that this small building has been constructed in three different periods.

  1. The base seems to be the remains of an ancient temple, 15 feet in height and about 30 feet in length and width. Such bases are commonly found in ancient Hindu temples and Buddhist stupas.
  2. The tomb may have been built on the ruins of this temple in the 12th – thirteenth century.
  3. Seeing the domed building reflecting Islamic architecture style above the tomb, it appears that this structure was built in the Mughal period. Hindu temple pillars can clearly be seen in this Islamic structure at the four corners and at the entrance.

SHARIABAD :- After the Hindus got defeated in 1194AD, new localities of muslims were built here, and during this time many mosques, dargahs, and graveyards were also built. Almost all these dargahs, Islamic cemeteries, and mosques were built by demolishing Hindu temples. In those days this area was known as Shariabad. During the Mughal period, this area was known as Baag-Badshah.


The fundamental principle of Islam, “destruction of idolatry”, was hindering conversion, as a result, thousands of Sufis adopted a new path of jihad —- these Sufis talked of unity instead of Hindu and Islam contradiction.

JEHAD FI-SABILILIAH is not the exclusive domain of the professional soldier, nor it is restricted to the application of military force alone. A Sufi musical Kauwali was developed by mixing Islamic verses with Hindu mantras. These Sufis converted the graveyards of Islamic warriors into a new shrine.

Many supernatural tales were created about these Islamic warriors, surprisingly these were the Islamic warriors who were responsible for the massacre of Hindus, the biggest enemies of idolaters. This package of jihad became popular very quickly and played a major role in the spread of Islam in the Indian subcontinent. Many such tombs, graveyards came into existence in the Rajghat area between 12th-13th century.
Presently some of the main MAJARS (TOMB) are:-

1.Rauja Chandan Shahid
2.Rauja Ajgaib Shahid
3..Rauja Palang Shahid RAUJA means shrine or tomb. It is also known as Maqbara,majar,Dargah.
SHAHID means Muslim martyr.


RAUJA CHANDAN SHAHID :- This tomb is located at Rajghat on the opposite side of Adi-Keshava Temple. Undoubtedly there must have been an ancient temple here, presently a mosque, Chandan Shahid tomb and some tombs in open ground can be found here. Both Hindu and Muslim devotees can be seen at the mazar.

The tomb is full of Islamic culture and traditions. The mosque, the tomb are all painted in holy Islamic colors. [GREEN] Some calendars are hung on the outer wall of the mausoleum, with photographs of Mecca-Medina and some with verses of the Qur’an covered in glass frames, the whole atmosphere was medieval.

When I tried to enter a room in Chandan Shahid tomb, a young boy stopped me and requested me to put the Islamic cap on my head. When I asked the reason for this, he said that this is the tradition here. He had some Islamic caps which he kept for the visitors who were not wearing one. Inside the Mazar, the pillars of the room were all green. I also smelled some kind of Itra (Islamic perfume) there which was literally disgusting. It still makes me shiver whenever I think of it’s smell.

RAUJA AJGAIB SHAHID There is a mosque, a holy tomb built on the rear side of the mosque and a hall possibly the buildings of this place have been repaired and rebuilt so many times that there is no trace of the pre-Islamic invasion. Only a few stone stairs are visible which look old, which are attached to the platform, just on this basis it is impossible to say anything about it’s history.


The ornate design on the pillars can be clearly seen in this image published in 1865. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. 34.

These pillars which seem to be a part of a temple became a part of the tomb(MAZAR) in 1194 CE

This pillar of the tomb does have some kind of ancient Hindu deity’s art made over it but it’s impossible to tell anything about the art or the deity because of the thick layers of paint on it.

There is another major tomb in front of Ajgaiz Shahid on the Grand Trunk Road itself, this mazar is known as Palang Shahid.

This place was an old cemetery, the description of this cemetery is also in the Banaras Gazetteers. The boundary wall of the cemetery is new. When entering through the main gate, there is a graveyard, when walking further into the graveyard there are three buildings and some more graves built on a square stone platform. These three buildings are-:

1) A mosque 2) A tomb with a dome shaped roof.(Note that this tomb is not of Palang Shahid.) 3) The main Tomb of Palang Shahid.

This tomb is situated right in the middle of the square stone platform. Modern tiles are installed on the tomb. This tomb has four pillars and a square shaped roof which has the dome built over it. The four pillars and the square roof built on these pillars is a pre-Islamic structure. If we take a look only at the four pillars and the square shaped roof over it, ignoring the domed structure and the tomb, it seems to be the CHAUKI of an ancient Hindu temple. It appears that the tomb and the dome built on top of the square roof are not the part of the original structure but have been separately placed over it. CHAUKI or CHOWKI :-In all Hindu temples, this type of structure is found near the main entrance of the temple, which is called Chauki (square seat).

Beautiful geometric designs and some figures are engraved on the four ornate pillars of the Chauki .These figures might be of Hindu deities. These figures aren’t very clearly visible because of the thick coats of paint above them. Another thing that caught my attention was the poster on this mazar. On the poster there was a sword with a picture of Mecca and the fundamental principles of Islam were written. THERE IS NO GOD EXCEPT ALLAH, MUHAMMAD IS THE MESSENGER OF ALLAH.

“Those that fail to learn from history are doomed to repeat it.”


Learning nothing from history has somehow become the destiny of India.

Vasanta College for Women is adjacent to Adi Keshav Temple in Rajghat area. This college was established in 1913 by Annie Besant. Annie Besant was a British woman who was influenced by Hindu religion culture, she had a major role in introducing the western countries to Hindu religion and culture. She was also a major contributor to India’s freedom struggle and social movements.

In Rajghat area, I visited the ruins of many ancient temples, tombs, mosques, graveyards, etc., near Keshav temple, along my way I crossed Vasanta College for Women, I talked to the girls there and asked to know their views. I tried this many times but I got disappointed in every single one of my attempt.

To my great surprise, these graduating students didn’t knew anything about the history of the ancient temple adjacent to the wall of their college, nearby madarasas, dargahs.

Only a few girls had went to the Adi Keshav temple and they too had a religious outlook not historical. They had no idea about the history of Islamic conversion, they had no idea about this dreadful period of Islamic imperialism history.

No one had even seen Chandan Shaheed Mazar, everyone had the same opinion about it – it is a symbol of Hindu-Muslim unity, When I asked them how? They immediately threw the answer as “We don’t know” .

This selective way of looking at history is a product of Nehruvians.
Completely political, completely devoted to the family, in the present world when there is a conflict between Islam and other religions, how much will this ostrich attitude help us?

Gautam Buddha gave his first sermon here in Varanasi (Sarnath), barely five kilometers from Rajghat. After attaining enlightenment in Gaya, Buddha had entered Varanasi through this historical route Uttar Path, whose teachings in Sarnath based on peace and non-violence, two and a half thousand years ago were known as Dhamma Chakra Parivartan.

The Buddha’s knowledge, the holy land of Sarnath, were completely destroyed by the havoc created by Islamic imperialism in 1194. India lost much of its knowledge of Buddha. (Centuries later, some British historians discovered some Buddha relics in the excavation of Sarnath, and India got a chance to get acquainted with the thoughts of Buddha again.) FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THIS SUBJECT PLEASE VISIT :- https://nithinks.com/2022/08/12/rediscovery-of-lion-capital-and-how-it-strengthened-indias-freedom-struggle/
The reason why Hindus were defeated was because they had very limited knowledge outside there geographical area, this ignorance is prevalent in Hindu society even today. Only the future will tell for how long a civilization that has not learned anything and still not ready to learn anything from its experiences will survive.

Dawn of civilization and shiva (SHIVA, GANGA & VARANASI)

In Shiva, who is the Lord of this Universe, Or Vishnu, its soul, I see no difference, But still, my love is for Him

Who has the young moon on His forehead.

Satyam Shivam Sundaram

Oh when will that time come,

When in a beautiful full-moon night, Sitting on the banks of some river, And in a calm, yet high notes repeating

“Shiva! Shiva! Shiva!” All my feelings will come out through the eyes In the form of tears?

When, wearing only the Kaupina, Lying on the sands of the holy Ganges in Benares,(Varanasi) When shall I weep aloud, “O Lord of ghouls”, Saying this, and whole days shall pass like moments?(Swami Vivekananda -The Complete Works)

Dawn of human civilization:- The unique relationship between Shiva, Ganga and Varanasi.

In Hinduism, there has been an ancient concept of city God and village God. According to this concept, there is a belief in Hinduism that every city, village was built by a different deity for people to live. Perhaps our expression of economic, social freedom of the villages also developed from similar sentiments. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2020/12/03/hindu-philosophy-and-the-importance-of-peace-9-11-1893-9-112001/

Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru

Glimpses of world history: ———– “Some old inscriptions from south India tell us how the members of the panchayats were elected, their qualifications and disqualifications. If any member did not render accounts of public funds he was disqualified.  Another very interesting rule seems to have been that near relative of members were disqualified from office. How excellent if this could be enforced now in all our councils and assemblies and municipalities.” (Jawaharlal Nehru)

This question will probably be one of the most difficult questions in human history, who first came into existence in Shiva, Varanasi and Ganga? It is impossible for a very ordinary person like me to answer this question, and I have no such attempt. My effort is just an attempt to shed light on the sacred relationship of Varanasi, Ganga and Shiva and its historicity. Mark Twain is probably the best on this subject.

As we mentioned the city deity – Shiva is honored with the city deity of Varanasi (Banaras, Kashi) is one of the oldest cities in the world. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2019/12/31/oldest-living-city-happy-new-year/ The Ganges river goes a long way until it reaches the sea from the Himalayas.(About fifteen hundred miles) Many ancient and religious cities of North India developed on the banks of river Ganges.(HARIDWAR,PRAYAGRAJ-Allahabad, KANPUR,VARANASI,MIRZAPUR,FARRUKHABAD,KANNAUJ,BHAGALPUR,PATNA,HAJIPUR,MUNGER,KOLKATA etc.) But the way the river Ganges behaves in Varanasi is not seen anywhere else. For more information about this subject please visit :-

Rajghat :- Remains of ancient Varanasi city found in archaeological excavations.
Lal Khan’s tomb amidst these ruins shows the influence of Islamic imperialism on Varanasi. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2019/10/07/islamic-imperialism-breaking-of-idols-hindu-struggle-past-present/

Almost all the great historians are of the opinion that ancient Varanasi city was near Rajghat. Near Rajghat, the Varuna River meets with the Ganges River, due to this river, the city got its name Varanasi. And in ancient times this river got its name due to the Varan (a species of trees) The river Varanavati is mentioned in the Atharva Veda.( period:-1000-900BCE)

Standing on a bridge built on the river Ganges near Rajghat, the crescent structure of Varanasi city is clearly visible. Always has a tradition of showing the Ganges River and the crescent moon on the forehead of Shiva. Beyond the imagination, amazing thousands of years old Shiva’s image, the unique SANGAM (GANGES MEETS VARANASI) of Ganges and Varanasi can be seen even today. Our ancestors, who had imagined such beautiful, accurate images of Shiva’s human form thousands of years ago, would undoubtedly have good knowledge of geography, mathematics and literature. It is a miracle that the seals of many Shiva temples have been found in the excavation of Rajghat, which has confirmed the Shiva-temples mentioned in the Puranas.(DATE:c 250 CE )

I love the area where the holy river Ganges flows in Varanasi. (SHIV Matsya Purana)

Many historians, archaeologists have estimated from the material obtained from the excavation of Rajghat that the ancient Varanasi city existed in 11th or 12 century BC.

Born here of parents born here from parents the same, and their parents the same—-Walt Whitman

Markandeya Mahadev: – On the border of Varanasi-Ghazipur, another holy river, Gomti, meets with the Ganges. The place of this confluence is located in a village called Kathy. The importance of this place, and the antiquity can be inferred from the fact that the description of this temple is also mentioned in Mahabharata. —-

‘मार्कण्डेयस्य राजेन्द्रतीर्थमासाद्य दुर्लभम् ।

गोमतीगङ्गयोश्चैव सङ्गमे लोकविश्रुते॥


The temple building has been changing over time, some historians believe that the Sangam place was also at some distance in ancient times. I personally feel very attached to this temple, because my mother’s village is near this temple, she used to come here since childhood, her habit continued in the later days as well. It seems to me that my mother used to feel connected to her ancestors in this temple more than religious significance.

My father was a civil engineer, (He was a graduate of India’s most prestigious civil engineering college and Asia’s oldest civil engineering college, Roorkee.)He also had reverence for the temple. Father’s scientific thinking about rivers, soils, and excellent knowledge of history used to make the journey to any historical, religion place interesting.

Visiting this temple in Shiva-Ratri is of great importance. Many stories related to Hinduism, are prevalent about this temple. Many stories related to here are also mentioned in Hindu, Buddhism, Jainism religious texts. There is a deep reverence for the temple in the surrounding area.

This freedom came from the feeling that all human lives were interrelated, a certainty that they flowed into each other—a happy feeling that all events took place not only on the earth, in which the dead are buried, but also in some other region which some called the Kingdom of God, others history, and still others by some other name.(Boris Pasternak)

Veereshwar Mahadev: – The mention of this temple of Varanasi is also found in the Kashi Khanda. This temple was of great importance in ancient times. This temple is situated on the banks of the Ganges near Scindia Ghat. The event of the birth of Swami Vivekananda, the world-renowned philosopher of modern times, is also associated with this temple. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2020/07/05/the-unknown-life-of-swami-vivekananda/

Birth of Vivekananda, Shiva temple and Varanasi.

Bhubaneswari was worshiping lord shiva in one of the houses in that locality. At the close of the her worship , she prayed to Shiva everyday while offering pranam, “o Shiva , give me a son on my lap.” she had a few daughters already . but how could she live without a son? so, she offered daily worship to Shiva for a son . she had even asked one of her old relatives at Benares (Varanasi)to offer daily worship to Vireswar Shiva there on her behalf . god heeds to whatever is asked of him with devotion in a simple heart . Bhubaneswari’s prayer was also granted. In the early morning of January 12,1863, she gave birth to a son .the child was named  Vireswar after Vireswar Shiva as his mother believed that she was granted her son as a boon from the lord . but the name was too difficult to be used as a nickname.so everybody in the house used to call him as a Biley.  he was named NarendraNath Dutta at the annaprasshana ceremony but still he remained the same Biley for all .(Vivekananda for children -publisher : Sri Ramkrishna Math Chennai)

Panch Ganga Ghat: – a is among the five major and oldest ghats of Varanasi. This place is described in the Matsya Purana as an area of ​​influence of Vishnu .Its ancient name was Bindumadhav Ghat. This Ghat got its name from the ancient temple of Bindumadhav (Lord Vishnu). In the seventeenth century, this ancient temple was demolished by the Islamic ruler Aurangzeb, and a mosque was built from the rubble of that ancient temple. Since then the name of this place became Panch Ganga in place of Bindumadhav. For more information about this subject please visit :—

Indus Valley Civilization :- (2350-2000 BCE)

The remains of the Indus Valley Civilization, Shiva are also there. Shiva also has a name Pashupati. Pashupati means God of animals. Under the Indus Valley Civilization, a stone seal was found at a place called Mohenjodaro, in which Shiva is in a yoga pose (AADI YOGI) and is surrounded by a variety of animals. Shiva’s crown is like a trident, this seal is kept in the museum of Delhi.

One thing is clear that according to our convenience, we call Shiva by religion, civilization culture, deity and nature by any name Shiva is prevalent among all. Man himself is a creation of prehistoric times. The imagination of man’s prehistoric period, the sequence of development, Shiva is included in himself.
According to Hindu religion philosophy, God is omnipresent. Shiva is the history of human development journey from the beginning of nature till date. Shiva is the symbol of power – the combined power. Shiva is the symbol of any endeavor for the welfare of human life.
Shiva is the symbol of the communication of spiritual power. Shiva is the basis of nature and human relations, , and these cooperation.