LIGHT OF ASIA:- SARNATH(VARANASI)

India is, the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grand mother of tradition. Our most valuable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only. (MARK TWAIN)

GO TO BENARES or Kashi, that most ancient of cities, and give ear to her murmuring. Does she not tell you of her immemorial past-of how she has gone on while empires have decayed, of Buddha who came to her with his new gospel, of the millions who have gone to her through the ages to find peace and solace? Old and hoary, decrepit, dirty, smelly, and yet much alive and full of the strength of ages, is Benares. Full of charm and wonder is Kashi, for in her eyes you can see the past of India, and in the murmur of her waters you can hear the voices of ages long gone by.” (GLIMPSES OF WORLD HISTORY )


SARNATH: GAUTAM BUDDHA GAVE HIS FIRST SERMON HERE

S ARNATH is situated a few kilometers away from the main city (old city) of Varanasi. At present, the increasing population and expansion of the city has made Sarnath a part of itself. The most modern part of Varanasi is being developed near Sarnath and this area will be known as New Kashi. (Varanasi city has been known as Kashi and Banaras in ancient times.) The area around ​​Sarnath is still very open and free from congestion as compared to old Varanasi. Varanasi morning is very famous. (SUBEH-E-BANARAS ) It is a very ancient tradition of Varanasi to take a dip in the holy Ganges at dawn, and then to perform darshan in temples. The day begins with Hindu rituals in the morning, following thousands of years of tradition, the resounding bells of temples, the rush of people to take a holy dip in the Ganges, the sound of holy verses, all these things together give the impression of a different world. Mark Twain has put it very well in words- “I think Banaras is one of the most wonderful places I have ever seen. It has struck me that a westerner feels in Banaras very much as an oriental must feel while he is planted down in the middle of London”. (MARK TWAIN) FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THIS SUBJECT PLEASE VISIT :- https://nithinks.com/2021/08/07/eight-chapters-of-varanasi-that-everyone-must-read/ Varanasi is the holiest city of Hindus, for this reason, Hindu monks, saints, pandit, priests can be seen everywhere. They can be easily recognized by their saffron clothes. Surprisingly, at a short distance, the nature of the morning changes completely. Sarnath, a few kilometers away from the main Varanasi, has a completely different dawn. Here Buddhist monks from many countries of the world can be seen meditating early in the morning. Hindu monks and Buddhist monks have one thing in common – saffron-colored clothes. Like Buddhist philosophy, Jain philosophy is also an integral part of India’s spiritual tradition. Shreyansnath, The eleventh Tirthankar of Jainism, was also born near Sarnath, so Sarnath has special significance for the followers of Jainism too. There is also a Jain temple of Shreyansnath among the ruins of Buddhism in Sarnath. In spite of so much diversity ideologically and religiously, there is no conflict of any kind – but uniformity. For thousands of years tolerance and equanimity have been the hallmark of Indian culture which can be clearly felt in Sarnath. INDIA HAS BEEN A SHELTER FOR RELIGIOUS DISPLACED PEOPLE FOR CENTURIES. FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THIS SUBJECT PLEASE VISIT :- https://nithinks.com/2020/12/03/hindu-philosophy-and-the-importance-of-peace-9-11-1893-9-112001/ When Jewish temples were being demolished in the Roman Empire, many Jews came and settled in South India. (Centuries later, after the establishment of the Jewish country of Israel, many of these people migrated to Israel, but many people are still residents of India) After the arrival of Islam in its native place Iran, Zoroastrianism was almost wiped out, surprisingly Even today, the largest number of Zoroastrians (Parsi) in the world live in India. (Parsi religion is related to Baby Jesus) After the partition of India, Pakistan became a Muslim nation, today Ahmadiyas and Shia Muslims do not get the rights that Sunni Muslims have, while India is a Hindu majority democratic country, here a large number of Ahmadiya, Shia Muslims reside and they have all the rights which any other Indian has. Millions of Tibetan refugees are living in India after China’s occupation of Tibet. In modern times when words like coexistence, tolerance, fraternity, globalization are used, they have been included in Hindu civilization and philosophy for thousands of years. Anyone can use Sarnath as a magnifying glass to understand India’s thousands of years of culture, civilization, coexistence, tolerance, potential, and respect for all religions and ideologies.


Gautam Buddha delivered his first sermon in the deer park at Sarnath—-
IN THE FOOTSTEPS OF THE BUDDHA

Dhamma Chakra Pravartan. FOR THE HAPPINESS OF THE MANY FOR THE WELFARE OF THE MANY

Gautam Buddha made these ancient lines of Rigveda (ancient Hindu scriptures c 1500-1000 BCE) the basis of his teaching. There was a message of Bahujan (People in the majority )Politics has its own dictionaries. At present, some political parties in India interpret this word according to their own will. On the other hand, the Buddha’s messages made a fundamental change in Hinduism, which made Hinduism more acceptable, and rich, while China, Japan found a teacher in the intuitive teachings of the Buddha. One of the oldest living cities in the world, Varanasi, was also called KASHI in ancient times The word Kashi has its origin from the word Kash. It means light. Here light does not signify just light(The one which is made up of photons). Here the word Light is used with a different context meaning “Light of knowledge” FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THIS SUBJECT PLEASE VISIT :- https://nithinks.com/2020/12/01/dev-deepawali-festival-of-light-city-of-light/ Undoubtedly the teachings of the Buddha further enhanced the prestige of Varanasi. Varanasi has been a city of knowledge while also being an important religious and commercial center since very ancient times. By the pre-Buddha time, the city of Varanasi had seen the climax of its capital of knowledge and was now on a downfall, few other places in India emerged as new temples of knowledge, posing severe challenges to Varanasi. Even after this challenge, Varanasi was one of the main education centers of India, perhaps only then Buddha choose this city for his first sermon.

Why is there so much contradiction in the name of Sarnath? To understand this, one has to understand a little ancient Hindu way of life. (I have seen many tourists getting confused about the name, so I want to make this topic clear here.)

Rishipattan OR Ishipattan:-Many sages(rishi) Hindu monks resided in the forest of Sarnath near Varanasi, Due to the abundance of sages, this place was known as Rishipattan. For this reason, in the ancient Pali language, it was called Ishipattan.

Sarangnath: – In ancient Hindu religious texts, this place is referred to as Sarangnath. The word Sarangnath is derived from a combination of two words. These two words are – Sarang + Nath. Sarang means deer and Nath means lord. Sarnath also has an ancient temple of Lord Shiva which is known as Sarangnath Temple. Many historians believe that due to this Sarangnath Shiva temple, later this place was named Sarnath.

Mrigdav (Deer -Park):- There is also a belief that when Bodhisattva had incarnated in the form of a deer, he had sacrificed his life to save a pregnant deer from the king who came on a hunting expedition. Later influenced by the incident and due to remorse, the king banned deer hunting in this entire area. For this reason, this area came to be known as Mrigdav (Deer -Park). From a scientific point of view, this story doesn’t seem appropriate, but this story is very important from a philosophical point of view. Sacrificing one’s own life for the survival of an organism is probably the biggest example of human sacrifice. This type of story is described in many places in Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain literature. A story similar to this is described in the Shiva-Purana, how a hunter sacrificed his life to save a pregnant deer and even today Shivratri, a major festival of Hindus, is celebrated in the memory of this story. FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THIS SUBJECT PLEASE VISIT :- https://nithinks.com/2021/03/14/mahashivratrishiv-barat-and-varanasi/ If anyone wants to see the peak of non-violence, then its divine philosophy can be seen in Hindu, Buddhist and Jain literature. This is because the spirit of non-violence and equanimity is prevailing in our society for thousands of years.

*Some important monuments of Sarnath*

CHAUKHANDI STUPA

CHAUKHANDI STUPA:- Locals call it Sita – Rasoi. Historians believe that this is the place where Buddha first met his five disciples. Built of bricks on a four-sided base,(chaukhandi) this structure is a Buddhist stupa. The height of this stupa is 93 feet from the base. Buddha came to Sarnath after attaining enlightenment at Uruvela. (Bodh -Gaya) The great traveler Hiuen Tsiang also visited this stupa when he came to Sarnath. He has described chaukhandi stupa in great detail in his travelogue. This stupa dates back to the Gupta dynasty. (early 4th century) Presently the structure of Chaukhandi Stupa can be divided into two parts. The first part is the ancient Stupa which was built during the Gupta Empire. There is an octagonal structure on top of this stupa. From a distance, it appears that someone has kept it separately on top of the stupa. There is a stone plate on this octagonal structure, which shows that this Top structure was built during the reign of Mughal Emperor Akbar. The Mughal emperor Humayun had rested at this place for one night, in memory of this incident, his son had built this monument here. How can a victorious civilization change the history of a defeated civilization? There are many monuments and temples in India whose foundations represent a Hindu civilization. The ideology of Islam did not originate on the soil of India, it was the ideology of Arabia which had its own rules and regulations.

DHARMARAJIKA STUPA:-

DHARMARAJIKA STUPA:-

Ashoka(268–232 BCE) also built Dharmarajika Stupa at Sarnath. Unfortunately, in 1794, the men of JAGAT SINGH the minister of the Raja of Banaras, dug out and completely demolished this stupa for bricks to build the famous locality of Kashi, Jagatganj (this locality is named after him). This happened unintentionally because they had no idea of ​​its historical importance. According to Mr. Duncan, in this stupa at the depth of 18 cubits, some bones, and gold leaf, pearl grains, and gems were found in a marble box inside a stone vessel, but because of the unawareness of Jagat Singh’s men, they were flown into the Ganges. In 1905, excavations by the Archaeological Department revealed that the Dharmarajika Stupa, built by Ashoka, had a diameter of 44 feet 3 inches. In the 5th or 6th century, a second enclosure was built around the stupa by a second cover, about 16 feet wide, a strong wall was drawn around it and four doors were installed in it. In the 7th century, the circumnavigation path was filled up and stairs were installed to reach the stupa. In the ninth and tenth centuries, there were also some changes. In the twelfth century, the stupa was again covered with cover and this cover was the last cover of this stupa because only after this the Muslims destroyed Sarnath. I would like to make one thing clear here that this entire incident was published in 1799 in the fifth volume of Asiatic Researches published from the Asiatic Society.
JONATHAN DUNCAN referred to this event in his essay (AN ACCOUNT OF THE DISCOVERY OF TWO URNS IN THE VICINITY of BENARES) on pages 131 and 132 in a book published by the Asiatic Society. This incident grabbed the interest of historians towards Sarnath.

MULGANDH KUTI VIHAR

THE HOLY PLACE WHERE LORD BUDDHA USED TO MEDITATE

Mulgandha Kuti Vihar in History:-

The place where Lord Buddha used to meditate during his stay in Sarnath, later a grand temple was built at the same place. This temple came to be known as Mulgandha Kuti Vihar. This holy temple was demolished by Muslim invaders. Presently this holy temple is just a ruin. But even today the ruins of this temple testify to the grandeur of this temple. According to Hiuen Tsiang, the height of this grand temple was 61 meters. The Mulgandha Kuti Vihar temple was built on a square base, each side of this square base was 18.29 meters. The huge, grand form of this temple can be imagined from the thick walls of the base of this temple.
The Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsiang was mesmerized by the amazing beauty of this holy temple. He wrote that ” The height of the top of the temple from the ground is about 61 meters. Gold-plated temple, whose steps were made of stone. Inside the temple was a life-size statue of Buddha in the Dharma-Chakra turning posture made of bronze.” It is not a difficult task to draw this conclusion based on the description of the temple by Hiuen Tsiang. After the description of Hiuen Tsiang, there has been a lot of changes in the buildings and place of Sarnath.

NEW MULGANDH KUTI VIHAR:-

The new Mulgandha Kuti Vihar Temple was built in 1931 by the Mahabodhi Society. New Mulgandha Kuti Vihar Temple is situated in a beautiful garden. The main gate of the garden and the main gate of the temple are made in a straight line. Inside the new Mulgandha Kuti Vihar, there is a shining golden-colored statue of Lord Buddha. On seeing this statue, it becomes clear that the presently installed idol in the new Mulgandha Kuti Vihar is a replica of the sandstone statue of Lord Buddha which was found by the archaeologists in Sarnath near the ruins of old Mulgandha Kuti Vihar.

The bright golden color of the statue is reminiscent of Hiuen Tsiang narration. Undoubtedly, every effort has been made to give New Mulgandha Kuti Vihar its true form and also to make it look like the old one. This effort of the Mahabodhi Society is commendable. There is a bell made of copper on the main gate of the vihara (temple), this bell was gifted by the Imperial family of Japan.

I have come from the Eastern Country of Cherry Blossoms to this sacred Land of Lotus Flowers, to offer my humble devotion to our Lord Buddha. This is the greatest privilege I have been looking forward to, for many years.

KOSETSU NOSU THE MAGICIAN OF COLORS FROM JAPAN

MAGIC OF KOSETSU NOSU:- Anyone entering the temple is astonished, by the huge murals on the inner wall of the temple. Very bright colors have been used in making these paintings. All these paintings are based on famous incidents from the life of Lord Buddha. These paintings are made by famous Japanese painter Kosetsu Nosu. He came to India to draw sketches of the Ajanta caves. He used this experience in making murals on the walls of the New Mulgandha Kuti Vihar. Japanese frescoes on such large canvas are rarely seen anywhere else in India

DHAMEKH STUPA (PLACE WHERE GAUTAM BUDDHA GAVE HIS FIRST SERMON TO HIS FIRST FIVE DISCIPLES).

” THEN PLEASE LISTEN , MY FRIENDS. I HAVE FOUND THE GREAT WAY, AND I WILL SHOW IT TO YOU. YOU WILL BE THE FIRST TO HEAR MY TEACHING. THIS DHARMA IS NOT THE RESULT OF THINKING. IT IS THE FRUIT OF DIRECT EXPERIENCE . LISTEN SERENELY WITH ALL YOUR AWARENESS”.

Geometric patterns and arts on Dhamekh stupa.

DHAMEKH STUPA

It is a solid cylindrical structure. It is built of bricks and stones. Its height is 43.6 meters and its diameter is 28 meters. This stupa is built at the exact place where Gautam Buddha gave his first sermon to his first five disciples. The stupa was built by Ashoka in 249 B.C., then at this place, the stupa was rebuilt in 500 C.E. Beautiful artworks and geometry are made on this stupa. This ornamentation also reflects the glorious history of textile art of India especially Varanasi. The fame of Varanasi’s textiles is described in pre-Buddha literature (2600 years ago). In those days, Varanasi’s muslin was considered to be the best in the whole India, now those clothes are no longer available, but the design of the clothes of that time can be understood from the decoration made on the stupa. We should never forget that in ancient times the indigo from India was used to dye clothes in Egypt and the Egyptians wrapped their sacred mummies in muslin cloths made from India. Even today, there is a tradition of wearing Banarasi sarees(Banarasi saree is a special type of saree, which is worn by Hindu women on auspicious occasions.) there is a great resemblance between the designs made on Banarasi sarees and the designs made on the stupas.

ASHOKAN PILLAR

1905 Excavation of Sarnath.

ASHOKAN PILLAR

About twenty five hundred years ago, an immortal voice of knowledge was ignited in the holiest city of the world’s oldest religion. In the light of this knowledge, after two hundred years, a great ruler tried to find new ways for the welfare of the subjects and established the world’s first welfare state.
Centuries later, a Chinese traveler, again impressed by the light of this knowledge, traveled to Mrigdav to understand its original form, and on the basis of that travelogue, history came alive again after centuries. Everything is threaded in one thread, India and its history will always be indebted to people like James Prinsep, James Ramson, Alexander Cunningham, Major Kittoe, C. Horne, F. O. Oertal, John Marshall, H. Hargreaves, Daya Ram Sahni. The lower part of a pillar built on a stone base was found during excavations to the west of the Dhamek Stupa in the winter of 1904-5. Soon more parts of this pillar were also found during excavations nearby. Presently the fragmented pieces of the Ashokan pillar are kept safe in a glass showcase. Three articles were mentioned on this pillar. The first article is in the Brahmi script of the Ashoka period, this article shows that Ashoka was determined to stop the division in Buddhism. According to this mandate, “Whoever creates a deity in the Sangh, whether a monk or a nun, will be thrown out of the Sangh “. A few feet away from this pillar, the top part of the pillar (CROWN) “statue of four lions with their backs to the back” was found. The brilliance of this statue not only introduced Indians to the glorious history of India before the Islamic invasion but also opened the doors of endless possibilities of discovery in ancient Indian history.

LION CAPITAL OF ASHOKA

The most famous of the Mauryan sculptures found at Sarnath and the most beautiful from the point of view of art is the Lion Capital[ [The top of the Ashokan pillar]. Its height is seven feet. Its shape is like a full-grown lotus. Four lion figures are made on the abacus. The abacus is kept on top of the bell-shaped vase covered with inverted lotus which is in turn kept on the shaft. Together these four lions are carrying the load of the wheel of Dharma, which is now broken and cannot be seen in the image. The abacus on which the four lions are standing are also having with images of a Taurus, an elephant, a horse a lion, and a twenty-four spoked wheel of the [MORAL- LAW]. There are differences among scholars regarding the shape of these animals. Some scholars believe that all these animals are symbols of various Hindu deities, and their depiction on the Ashokan Pillar concludes that these three Gods and Goddesses had surrendered to the Buddha. Many historians have denied this idea and called it a high flight of imagination. Some scholars consider these animals to be only ornamental. Some historians associate this animal with the life of Gautam Buddha.

ELEPHANT: Elephant is a symbol of the dream of Mayadevi, (mother of Buddha). From this dream, Mayadevi had realized the arrival of Buddha in her womb.
According to this story, Maya Devi, the mother of Buddha, had a dream before he was born. In the dream, Mayadevi saw a white elephant, which is entering her womb from the right side with a white lotus in her trunk. LION:- Lion symbolizes Gautam Buddha being Shakya Simha.(Lion of a Shakya clan ) HORSE:- The horse is a symbol of the temporary royalty of the Buddha.
TAURUS:- It is the symbol of the birth sign of Buddha. Some historians consider it to be a bull and associate it with ancient plowing and seed sowing. (Here it symbolizes the planting of new ideas by the Buddha). TWENTY -FOUR SPOKED WHEEL:- Twenty-four spoked wheel of the MORAL LAW. The 24 spokes on the spinning wheel symbolize the 24 Pratyay (teachings)of Buddhism. The huge spinning wheel that the four lions were carrying is now in a broken state and cannot be seen on the top of the Lion Capital. The fragments of this Moral Wheel are kept in the Sarnath Museum. There were 32 spokes in this wheel, these thirty-two spokes represent the 32 characteristics of great men, which are described in the Lakhan Sut of the Dighanikaya of Buddhism. There is no doubt that from the point of view of art and workmanship, this column-heading is unmatched in the field of Indian art. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India, was a brilliant scholar and well-versed in history. Nehru graduated from Cambridge and returned to India, he was greatly influenced by the discoveries and works related to the ancient history of India. Nehru’s political philosophy is greatly influenced by Gandhi as well as Buddha and Ashoka. Ashoka’s impression on Nehru is evident in the books (GLIMPSES OF WORLD HISTORY, The Discovery of India ) written by Nehru. Nehru named his daughter Indira Priyadarshini. The word Indira means Indu (moon). On the other hand, the word Priyadarshini is the feminine form of Ashoka’s name Priyadarshi. Priyadarshi or Priyadarshini means one who is dear to sight.

After the independence of India, when the matter of choosing the national flag and national emblem came up, Nehru without any hesitation chose the Lion Capital. Similarly, the spinning wheel in the middle of the national flag of India is also taken from this Lion capital of Ashoka(it can be seen in the abacus of the Lion Capital). The national emblem and national flag of any country is not just a monument or a piece of cloth, it is a symbol of that country’s history, culture, struggle, people’s spirit, social fabric developed over the years. In fact, the national emblem and the national flag are the physical evidence of that country.

BUDDHIST MONASTERY

BUDDHIST MONASTERY had progressed a lot during the time of Ashoka. Mrigdava continued to be a major center of Buddhism even further. There was also a Buddhist monastery, in which about 1500 monks and nuns lived, which is described by Hiuen Tsiang. The huge pillar mentioned by Hiuen Tsiang at a distance of some furlong from this monastery is the famous Ashokan Pillar, on which Ashoka’s warning regarding Buddhist monks and nuns is inscribed. Islamic invaders had tried to destroy the Buddhist monastery completely, and they were successful in this, but with the help of modern technology, the ruins of this Buddhist monastery have been discovered again. The ruins of this Buddhist monastery are spread over a wide area. In these ruins, many small stupas, meditative statues of Lord Buddha made on bricks, animals, birds, and geometric art have been made to decorate it. Currently, the Taliban are trying to destroy statues of Buddha , Buddhist monuments, for such Islamic extremists, these Buddhist monasteries are an example that Buddha’s thoughts are immortal and no terrorist ideology can destroy them. For twenty-six hundred years the thoughts of Gautam Buddha, imbued with the public welfare spirit, are as relevant today as they were twenty-six hundred years ago.

Sarnath Museum

Sarnath Museum:- India’s first on-site museum. During the excavation in Sarnath, such a huge amount of historical idols, artifacts, utensils, seals, ornaments, etc. were found that it was a difficult task to take them all the away to a museum and Sarnath also had its own historical importance. For this reason, a grand museum was built at this place. The museum building is a beautiful building made of stone. This museum was designed by James Ramson on the lines of a Buddhist vihara. The construction of this building started in 1904 and was completed in 1910. Within this grand building, more than six thousand objects of historical importance found in Sarnath are kept. These historical objects were found here in the excavations of Alexander Cunningham (1835-36). Major Kittoe ( 1851-52), C. Horne(1865), F. O. Oertal (1904-05), John Marshall (1907), H. Hargreaves (1914-15), and Daya Ram Sahni (1927-32). For those interested in Indian ancient history, this museum is not less than a treasure. I will write a separate post in the future about the items collected in the museum. I have written in detail in this post about the Lion Capital of Ashoka (National Emblem of India) stored in the museum.

BODHI TREE PEACE AND HARMONY IN THE NEXT MILLENNIUM IN LINE WITH BUDDHISM

Bodhi Tree, related to The Bodhi Tree, Sarnath

BODHI TREE AND THE COPLEX

A Peepal tree was planted here during the inauguration of the new building of Mulgandha Kuti Vihar. Sanghamitra, the daughter of Emperor Ashoka, took the branch of the tree under which Gautama Buddha attained enlightenment to Sri Lanka and planted it in Sri Lanka. (Anuradhapura) A Branch of this sacred tree was then brought from Sri Lanka and planted in Sarnath. And so we can say that indirectly this is the same tree under which Gautam Buddha attained enlightenment!!!! Now, this is a huge tree. Under this sacred tree, there are huge statues of Mahatma Buddha and his first five disciples.


A HUGE BELL IS INSTALLED AT SOME DISTANCE FROM THE SACRED TREE. I reached the courtyard of the sacred tree around 6 o’clock in the evening. It was evening and almost all the tourists had left. There was a serious, calm atmosphere. The birds were also returning to their homes, I could hear their voice as they were on their way towards home. I also heard some peacocks from time to time, the voices of birds were not creating any disturbance in the atmosphere of peace. I was sitting on the stone steps of Mulgandha Kuti Vihar temple thinking something when a temple employee came to me and said softly “Sir now it is time to close the temple so please vacate this campus.” I agreed and was preparing to leave when I saw some people carrying candles towards the holy tree, I asked the staff and came to know that it is time for the evening worship of the holy tree. I asked the employee can I watch this program? He smiled and said ” Of course”, just take permission from the monks who made this program successful. I moved towards those monks and expressed my wish, they happily granted me permission. After a few moments these monks started the circumambulation of the sacred tree, while doing the circumambulation, also started lighting diyas on the small statues of Buddha around the tree. Now the monks started reciting religious mantras while doing the circumambulation. I could not understand even a single word of this religious mantra, (I understood that the language was something special it didn’t sound like Sanskrit at all, but I was not able to figure out the language itself on my own)later I came to know that the monks were using the Pali language. The original teachings of Buddha are in the Pali language. Pali language was commonly used at the time of Buddha and Sanskrit was the language of the elite people and Brahmanas. Today Pali language is taught in the universities of Varanasi but common people never use it, the Pali language is not used even in the surrounding areas of Sarnath.

The teachings of Lord Buddha at the time of turning of the wheel of Dharma are engraved on a piece of a stone parasol at Sarnath; It contains the four noble truths of Buddhism. The script of the article dates back to the last Kushan period. Stan Kono says that this is the only account of Pali received from North India and it shows that the Pali Tripitaka existed at that time and people in Banaras knew and read it.

It was a wonderful experience to listen Buddha’s teachings in the original language after thousands of years, at the same place where Buddha gave his first sermon. A transcendental experience among images of the Buddha preaching to his first five disciples. (Kaundinya, Vappa, Bhadriya, Mahanaman and Asvajit)
For a moment I felt as Buddha was giving his first sermon to his disciples, and I am witnessing that moment too.

(MRIGDAV- DEER PARK) :- The old name of Sarnath was also Mrigdav. Here hunting of deer was banned. Keeping this history in mind, a Deer Park has also been developed here. Various types of deer have been kept. Apart from deer, some other animals and birds can also be seen here.

Many temples have been built on this holy place by other Buddhist countries. Undoubtedly these temples are very important from the point of view of tourism and also from the point of view of art. What to say for the tourists who are fond of selfies?

MUST- VISIT TEMPLES IN SARNATH

NICHIGAI SUZAN HORINJI. (Japanese temple)

The original name of this temple built by the Japanese government is NICHIGAI SUZAN HORINJI. The locals know it as, the Japanese temple. This temple has been built on the basis of the famous temple of Kyoto( the cultural capital of Japan). Sandal wood has been used extensively in the construction of this temple. This temple is a symbol of the close relationship between the cultural capital of India(Varanasi) and the cultural capital of Japan(Kyoto ).

The courtyard of the temple is divided into two parts. The main temple is situated in one of the parts of the courtyard. Lord Buddha is shown in a lying posture inside the temple, this statue of Lord Buddha and the roof of the temple are made up of the precious sandal wood. In the second part of the temple courtyard, there is a stupa made of marble. Huge statues of Gautam Buddha in a seated posture are constructed in all the four directions of this stupa. On the basis of these statues, the teachings of Gautam Buddha are inscribed in Japanese, Hindi and English. On the road leading to the stupa, there is a miniature replica of Lion Capital on both sides. A very beautiful archway has also been constructed that leads to the Stupa.

Chinese Temple :-

Tourists are not seen here due to it’s simple look from outside, I liked the calm atmosphere here. This temple was built in 1939. The building of this temple is yellow in color. The architecture of China is reflected in the construction of the temple.

The Chinese temple depicts Hiuen Tsiang’s journey to India.

TIBETAN TEMPLE :-

The Tibetan Temple was built in 1955. There are two lion statues at the entrance of the temple. These lions represent the art of Tibet. The two deer at the main entrance of the Tibetan temple represent the ancient name of Sarnath ~ Mrigdava. On entering the courtyard of the temple, a giant golden-colored statue of Gautam Buddha attracts attention. Gautam Buddha’s statue in a meditative posture is installed in a mirror showcase under the shade of the sacred Peepal tree.
There is a stone-carved stupa here. This stupa shows the gratitude of Tibet towards India. This stupa also tells the story of China’s imperialism and tyranny. China’s attack on Tibet and Dalai Lama‘s exodus to India along with more than ten thousand Tibetan people or the unprovoked death of millions of people due to China’s atrocities on Tibet are all mentioned here.

SARANGNATH TEMPLE :-

SARANGNATH TEMPLE POND

Many historians believe that due to the ancient temple of Sarangnath, this place got its name as Sarnath. Sarnath or Sarangnath means lord of animals, for this reason, Lord Shiva is also known as Pashupati. It is believed that when the influence of Buddhism was increasing, Adi Guru Shankaracharya established a Shivling wherever he traveled, the ancient temple here also has a Shivling established by Adi Guru Shankaracharya. A fair is also held here in the month of Sawan. There is a beautiful ancient pond in front of the Sarangnath temple. The construction of ponds was a common practice with ancient temples in Hinduism. The Sarangnath temple is built on a stone base. On seeing this temple, the picture of Chaukhandi Stupa naturally emerges in the mind. There are stairs to reach the temple. The courtyard of the temple is small but is covered with the shade of banyan, peepal tree. FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THIS SUBJECT PLEASE VISIT:- https://nithinks.com/2021/03/10/dawn-of-civilization-and-shiva-shiva-ganga-varanasi/

Jain Temple :-

Jain Temple

Varanasi has also been a major city for the followers of Jainism. Varanasi has been the birthplace of four out of twenty-four Tirthankaras of Jainism. During the excavation of Sarnath, important sculptures and artifacts related to Jainism were found which are kept in the Sarnath Museum. Shreyansnath was born in the Sarnath region. The jain temple dedicated to Shreyanshnath is in Sarnath. This Jain temple is adjacent to the Dhamek Stupa. The courtyard of this temple is covered with peepal and banyan trees. I found one thing astonishing, many trees of Peepal and Banyan can be seen in Sarnath area, have there been abundance of Peepal and Banyan trees since historical times? These two trees are considered very sacred in Hinduism, Jainism, and also in Buddhism or since the archaeological excavations, these sacred trees have been planted in the campuses of Hindu, Buddhist, Jainism monuments, temples. Perhaps both these reasons are true, but at that point of time, it was very relaxing to see these trees in the courtyard of the temples. Banyan and Peepal trees are huge, due to their spread they protect the entire temple from the scorching heat of the sun, provide natural coolness and they also allow visitors to relax.

Thai Temple

Presently the Thai temple situated in Sarnath is the biggest center of tourist attraction. This is because of the huge statue of Buddha. This temple is situated in a big garden. This temple has been built by the government of Thailand. The architectural influence of Thailand is evident in the construction of the Thai temple. The building of the temple is not grand, but it looks very attractive because it has been constructed in the middle of a large garden. Inside the temple, there is a huge golden-colored statue of Buddha. There are also some other statues in the courtyard of the temple.
As I told earlier the huge statue of Buddha in the courtyard of the temple is the main tourist attraction here. The height of this statue is about 80 feet. This statue was completed in 14 years. It was made when the Taliban tried to destroy an ancient statue of Buddha in Afghanistan.

GULABI TEMPLE ( Vietnamese temple )

The Vietnamese temple is known by the local residents as the Pink Temple (GULABI MANDIR). Perhaps the temple got this name because of its archway. The Vietnamese temple is located in a village about two kilometers away from the main Sarnath. The path to the Vietnamese temple leads through narrow streets of the villages. The weather was pleasant so I decided to visit the Vietnamese temple on foot. (Here in India you will never prefer traveling on foot in summer because of the scorching heat of the Sun which will exhaust you in a very small amount of time) There is also an ancient Maa(MOTHER) Durga temple near the Vietnamese temple. The huge meditative statue of Lord Buddha was visible even from a far distance. The statue of Lord Buddha installed in this temple is seventy feet high. This statue is installed on a square base. An archway has also been constructed, a similar archway is also present in the Japanese temple. This temple is at a short distance from the main Sarnath, but still the number of tourists here is negligible.

I was pleasantly surprised to see the statue of Emperor Ashoka built in the courtyard of the temple. In this statue Emperor Ashoka carries the Lion Capital as a Royal Rod. The credit of spreading the teachings of Buddha all over the world goes to this great Indian emperor. The heart-change and public welfare spirit of this great victorious emperor is still an example for the world. Sarnath is also a witness to the construction work of Emperor Ashoka.

Teachings of Gautam Buddha and Ashoka

DEVANAMPIYENA PIYADASI:- ( THE BELOVED OF THE GODS)

Amidst the tens of thousands of names of monarchs that crowd the columns of history, their majesties and graciousness’s and serenities and royal highnesses and the like, the name of Ashoka shines, and shines almost alone, a star. From the Volga to Japan his name is still honored. China, Tibet, and even India, though it has left his doctrine, preserve the tradition of his greatness. More living men cherish his memory today than have ever heard the names of Constantine or Charlemagne. (Outline of History )H.G WELLS

Devanampiyena Piyadasi is defined in the Brahmanical Purana as the Raja Ashoka. (THE KING WITHOUT SORROW). One who has no sorrow. Emperor Ashoka has a different place among the great kings of India. Ashoka has got this special place in Indian history not because of a great conqueror but because of the first welfare ruler in the world.

A journey from CHAND -ASHOKA ( Cruel Ashok ) to DHAMMA (One who cares for others) ASHOKA

Ashoka was the king of most parts of monolithic India (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal and Bhutan). Ashoka’s empire extended to the Hindukush Mountains (Afghanistan), the Godavari coast in South India, Bangladesh in the east, Iran in the west. Ashoka was known as Chand Ashoka during this period of his life. Chand Ashoka means cruel Ashoka. Ashoka brutally suppressed his opponents, the opposition arising in the state and the kings of other states during this period of life. 261 BC: Ashoka attacked Kalinga (present-day Orissa province).

Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, conquered the Kalingas eight years after his coronation. One hundred and fifty thousand were deported, one hundred thousand were killed and many more died from other causes. After the Kalingas had been conquered, Beloved-of-the-Gods came to feel a strong inclination towards the Dharma, a love for the Dharma and for instruction in Dharma. Now Beloved-of-the-Gods feels deep remorse for having conquered the Kalingas.

Ashoka’s heart was filled with compassion due to this fierce bloodshed, Ashoka felt defeat in his victory, realizing his mistake, in a way, this was Ashoka’s rebirth, a new journey that was the beginning of the transformation from Chand Ashoka to Dhamma Ashoka. Ashoka now decided to play the role of a father, not a ruler and devoted his entire life to the welfare of the people. He is the only military monarch on record who abandoned warfare after victory.

ASHOKA THE GREAT, BUDDHA’S TEACHING & SARNATH

Emperor Ashoka was not only a conqueror, great ruler, and the father of the world’s first public welfare state, but he also had a keen interest in the construction of buildings, monuments. Many historians believe that Indian art was at its peak during the reign of Ashoka, and after that, it declined. The remains found in the excavation of Sarnath tell a completely different story. An unbroken stream of gradual development is visible in the remains found from Sarnath. The sculptures found from Sarnath show that Indian artists were constantly trying to refine their art. Sarnath progressed a lot during Ashoka’s reign. Many associations of Buddhist monks and nuns were established here during his reign. The Dharmarajika Stupa(which was unintentionally demolished by the men of JAGAT SINGH), Dhamekh Stupa, Ashokan Pillar, Buddhist Monastery and other buildings and monuments at Sarnath are evidence of Ashoka’s interest in construction and architecture.

Korean temple

The priest of the Vietnamese temple informed me about the nearby Korean temple. My next destination was—Korean Temple. The Korean temple is located at a short distance from the Vietnamese temple. On my way to the Korean temple, I saw a big pond. The pond was natural and was not made by anyone. Lotus flowers were abundantly there in the pond. Lotus flowers have great importance in Buddhist philosophy. People accustomed to the modern lifestyle of metropolitan cities, who have seen lotus flowers only in artificial ponds, should stay here for some time. Due to being away from the main Sarnath, the number of tourists remains negligible here too. The main building of the Korean temple is two-storied, in addition, there are some monuments and statues in the temple courtyard.

DUSSEHRA: Our Ancestors Turned a Festival into a People’s War Against Imperialism

DUSSEHRA (VIJAYADASHMI) BEFORE THE ARRIVAL OF ISLAM

The month of October is known as the month of festivals in Hindus. Many festivals of Hindus fall in this month. One such major Hindu festival is Dussehra or Vijaydashshmi. India is a country with different types of climate, regional variation, food and drink, for this reason fundamental similarities and traditional differences are seen in every Hindu festival. Dussehra or Vijayadashami is also no exception to this. There are various reasons, traditions and ways of celebrating this festival among the Hindus. According to Hindu religion, Lord Vishnu incarnated as the prince of Ayodhya on earth to liberate people from the tyranny of demons. It is a tradition to celebrate Dussehra to commemorate the day on which Lord Rama killed Ravana, the king of demons. According to another story related to this festival, Goddess Durga killed Mahishasura after nine nights and ten days of war, the festival of Dussehra is celebrated to commemorate the nine-night war of Mother Durga and the victory of the tenth day.
Navratri is celebrated in the memory of the nine days of struggle of Maa Durga. Many people also observe a fast for nine days in remembrance of this day of struggle and to show their reverence and gratitude to Goddess Durga. This festival is celebrated to mark the victory of good over evil and tyranny. There has also been a tradition of weapon worship on this day since ancient times. People have such belief that this is an auspicious and victory day, so it is considered an auspicious day for starting any new work (in relation to business, shop or for imparting alphabet knowledge to children). Remembering the victory of Lord Rama in Dussehra. While burning the effigy of Ravana is also organized on this day.

Sita Mata (mother Sita) with her two sons, Luv and Kusha

Sita is typical of India— the idealized India. The question is not whether she ever lived, whether the story is history or not, we know that the ideal is there. (SWAMI VIVEKANANDA)

RAMA, THE ANCIENT IDOL OF THE HEROIC AGES the embodiment of truth, of morality, the ideal son, the ideal husband, the ideal father, and, above all, the ideals all, the ideal king, this Rama has been presented before us by the great saint Valmiki.

HE WHO WAS SHRI RAMA, whose stream of love flowed with resistless might even to the Chandala (the outcaste); Oh, who ever was engaged in doing good to the world though superhuman by nature, whose renown there is none to equal in the three worlds, Sita’s beloved, whose body of Knowledge Supreme was covered by devotion sweet in the form of Sita.

After the independence of India, Mahatma Gandhi envisioned ideal India in the form of Ram Rajya. Mahatma Gandhi’s political philosophy was also completely based on the ideal conception of Ram’s Maryada Purushottam.

AYODHYA NAGRI (JAIN TEMPLE )

BY POLITICAL INDEPENDENCE I do not mean an imitation to the British House of commons, or the soviet rule of Russia or the Fascist rule of Italy or the Nazi rule of Germany. They have systems suited to their genius. We must have ours suited to ours. What that can be is more than I can tell. I have described it as Ramarajya i.e., sovereignty of the people based on pure moral authority.

BY RAMARAJYA I do not mean Hindu Raj. I mean by Ramarajya Divine Raj, the Kingdom of God. For me Rama and Rahim are one and the same deity. I acknowledge no other God but the one God of truth and righteousness. Whether Rama of my imagination ever lived or not on this earth, the ancient ideal of Ramarajya is undoubtedly one of true democracy in which the meanest citizen could be sure of swift justice without an elaborate and costly procedure. Even the dog is described by the poet to have received justice under Ramarajya.

GOSWAMI TULSIDAS

Dussehra and Ramlila:- The drama based on the life of Lord Shri Ram has been staged in India for centuries. But this stage was based on the Ramayana composed by Valmiki, and its language was Sanskrit which was limited to the elite class. When the holy places, places of worship of Hindus were being vandalized by the Mughal invaders, a voice of public consciousness emerged from Varanasi, the holiest pilgrimage site of Hindus. The name of this voice was Goswami Tulsidas. A new sense of hope among Hindus was created by Tulsi Das. The defeated civilization arose again, with a renewed vigor. Tulsi Das ji did not do anything new, he did the real democratization of the story of Lord Shri Ram, settled in the public mind of India. During this process he interpreted the Ramayana in a new form. Goswami Tulsidas ji wrote the story of Ramayana in his book Ramcharitmanas in the language of common people called Awadhi. Along with this, Tulsidas ji started the staging of Ram Katha on the basis of Ramcharitmanas in the holy city of Hindus in Varanasi. Soon Ram Katha was staged on the basis of Ramcharitmanas composed by Goswami Tulsidas ji at many places in Varanasi. This unique way of protecting Hindu religion, culture and tradition was the invention of Tulsidas ji himself. Soon Ramlila staging took the form of a movement all over North India. A natural, fundamental people’s movement. By turning every Hindu into a Hindu temple, Tulsidas gave a befitting reply to the idol-breakers. Consider your body to be worshipable because even God once took birth in it. Despite facing many atrocities, Tulsidas’s Rama had an ideal in front of the Hindus which prepared them to face internal and external problems in their lives. It was a blessing in Akbar’s rule, the rest of the time was worse. Here two examples can be used to understand the situation at that time.

KASHI VISHWANATH After seeing this diagram, is there anything left to say on this subject?
A living drawing of one of the holiest temples of the Hindus, Kashi-Viswanath by James Prinsep in 1831
Demolishing this holy temple of Hindus, a mosque was built here by the Mughal king Aurangzeb from its rubble. The ruins of the demolished temple can be seen in this drawing.

“It had been brought to the notice of His Majesty [Shah Jahan] that during the late reign many idol temples had been begun, but remained unfinished, at Benares, (Varanasi)the great stronghold of infidelity. The infidels were now desirous of completing them. His Majesty, the Defender of the Faith, gave orders that at Benares and through out all his dominions in every place, all temples that had been begun should be cast down. It was now [1042 AH. 1632 A.D.] reported from the province of Allahabad that seventy-six temples had been destroyed in the district of Benares.” Badshah-nama, pg. 449

The 3d December 1632. (Mohun ca Sarae [Mohan Sarai], 4 Course), Att our comeinge forth of Bunaroz [Benares], wee sawe a man hanginge by the heeles on a tree. His offence was this. This Kinge [Shah Jahan] had commaunded that all Hindooe Churches made in his tyme should bee demolished, and for that purpose sent his firmaen [farmän] to this Governour”, whoe sent his Couzin, with other principall men in Comission, to see it executed on one lately built. A Rashpoote [rajput] hearing of it, hid himselfe, and with a Comptee [kamthä, kanthi], or longe bowe provided for that purpose, seeinge his tyme, shott amongst them, killed the Gouvernours Couzin, and 3 or 4 more of the Cheifest, which was done on the suddaine. But being quickly found and sett upon, with his Jemdar [jamdhar) or dagger killed one or 2 more, and then was slaine himself and his body hanged on the tree as aforesaid. (THE TRAVELS of PETER MUNDY page 178)

(HAR -HAR MAHADEV RAJA -RAMCHANDRA KI JAI )

Famous Ramlilas of Varanasi

RAMLEELA OF RAMNAGAR :- Sketch of Ramlila of Ramnagar in Banaras by James Prinsep in 1831. In this sketch, the Maharaja of Banaras is watching Ramlila sitting on an elephant. Huge effigies of Ravana, Kumbhakarna and Meghnad can be seen in the sketch.

Some interesting facts about Ramnagar Ramlila:-

The king of Varanasi, who is known as (Kashi-Naresh), started staging Ramlila in Ramnagar about 200 years ago. Ramlila is being staged uninterruptedly even today. Ramlila of Ramnagar is recognized as a cultural heritage by UNESCO, due to its unique traditions. Every day Ramlila begins with the proclamation of Raja Ramchandra ki Jai with Har Har Mahadev.
. Even in today’s modern era, Ramlila is staged on the basis of traditions 200 years ago.
. Mic, artificial light (electricity) is not used in the staging of entire Ramlila, instead traditional light source is used.
. The role of Ravana is being performed generation after generation by the people of the same family since the beginning of Ramlila.
. Preparations for staging Ramlila start months in advance. The selection of the characters is done by the committee.
. The most important thing about Ramlila of Ramnagar – Ramlila of Ramnagar is not held at any one place, different events of Ramayana are staged at different places. Ramlila of Ramnagar is organized for 31 days. On the basis of Ramcharitmanas composed by Tulsidas, different places and days are fixed for staging different events. . The sadhus, saints or common people that come to see Ramlila of Ramnagar, are known as Manas.

CHETGANJ NAK-KATTIYA:-

An old locality in Varanasi is named Chetganj after the name of Raja Chet Singh of Varanasi. A fair is organized in this locality, in which Ramayana events are displayed sequentially. First of all, Lakshman, the younger brother of Lord Rama, cuts the nose of (Amaryadit )Suparnakha. In this fair, voice is also raised against social evils, problems. Before independence, the revolutionaries also tried secretly in this fair to make people aware and increase public consciousness. The great revolutionary Chandrashekhar Azad also used to participate in this fair with his friends. Various types of tableaux are also displayed in the fair. A crowd of up to one lakh(hundred thousand) gathers to see this fair, that is why it is also called Lakkhi Mela.

NAATI IMLI BHARAT MILAP :-Naati Imli Bharat Milap mela is about 478 years old. After completing 14 years of exile, Lord Rama came to his homeland Ayodhya. After years, the four brothers met each other, this is probably one of the most emotional incidents of Ramayana. The enthusiasm of the people watching this episode has not decreased ever since the past 478 years. Varanasi is known as the city of Shiva, but at the time of Dussehra it turns into the city of Lord Rama, thus any person who wants to know the soul of India, wants to see the thousands of years old culture of India, Wants to feel India, wants to see a glimpse of the struggle of Hindus against imperialism,
Such a person who wants to feel the sanctity of the name of Lord Rama, must at least once in his life witness the Ramlila and Dussehra of Varanasi. The centuries-long Ramlila of Varanasi has been affected for two years due to the outbreak of Corona epidemic. Pray to God that soon the entire human race gets freedom from this wrath.

Kolkata Durga Puja and Bengali Literature

In India, the mother is the Centre of the family and our highest ideal. To us, she is representative of God, as God himself is the mother of the universe.

For what is a nation? What is our mother country? it is not a piece of earth, Nor a figure of speech, nor a fiction of the mind .it is a mighty Shakti, composed of the shaktis of all the millions of units that make up the nation, just as Bhawani Mahisha Mardini sprang into being from the Shakti of all the millions of gods assembled in one mass of force and welded into Unity. The Shakti we call India Bhawani Bharti is the living unity of three hundred million, people but she is inactively imprisoned in the magic circle of the tamas the self-indulgent inertia and ignorance of her sons to get rid of tamas we have but to wake the Brahma within. (Sri Aurobindo) For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2021/01/18/makar-sankranti-is-an-ancient-hindu-festival-or-the-burden-of-old-tradition/

On hearing the name of Kolkata city, some names immediately come to mind – Rasgulla, Fish, Sweets, Dhoti Kurta, umbrella, Howrah bridge Durga Puja etc.

Now that I have been to Kolkata many times, there is no doubt that the city of Kolkata is like my second home, my favorite city. My first visit to Kolkata was by accident. There was no fixed program. My cousin was leaving for Kolkata and he wanted me to come with him but informed me a few days before leaving. I got to know some information about Steamers, Park-street, and the Museum of Kolkata from my father who had been to Kolkata, he also suggested me to go to these places.
I just knew about the Literary Kolkata before I went there. I have an inclination towards Bengali literature since childhood. Of course I have inherited it. My grandfather was a lawyer and he also loved literature. The first Bengali literature book I read as a child was PRATHAM PRATISHRUTI written by Ashapurandevi, this book was in my grandfather’s library ( that hard bound version of Pratham pratishruti is still stuck in my head to this date) During summer vacations we went to our grandpa’s house and were always looking for something to read . Pratham pratishruti book was in my grandfather’s library, I took it to read, I think I was probably too young to understand that book at that time, I didn’t liked it after reading a few pages I gave it to my elder sister to read. (I turned my attention to some more simple and entertaining books in Grandpa’s library to spend the summer holidays) Amazing! The book became my sister’s favorite book. To this day this is my sister’s one of the favorite book and she must have read it countless times. My sister has lived in Denmark for the past eight years and she has a more recent version of Pratham pratishruti there, but she still loves to read that old bound version whenever she comes to India.

(VARANASI DURGA TEMPLE) The Durga Temple in Varanasi, built in the 18th century by a Bengali maharani and is stained red with ochre.

Journey from Mini Bengal (Varanasi )to West Bengal:- The largest number of Bengalis live in a city outside the state of West Bengal …… in Varanasi. Varanasi is called Mini Bengal because of the majority of Bengalis here. I caught a train from Mughal Sarai in Varanasi to Kolkata at night, so firstly I immediately went to my berth and slept. When I woke up in the morning, I saw the first sight of Bengal from the window of the train. With the pond, lotus flowers, and the greenery, it seemed that there was some geographical change. The train stopped for a while at the MEM SAHAB KA BAITHAK KHANA then I got down to take a walk. Surprisingly many people were smoking. Smoking is prohibited inside the train and at the railway station. (Bengali people’s love for smoking is obvious) When I asked a smoker about this, he laughed and said that “It is a small railway station, so no one pays attention, yes if it would have been a big station, of course by now I would have been fined”. We stayed at my maternal uncle’s place in Kolkata, my maternal uncle used to work in ITC and had retired on his own volition. As I told earlier this was my first visit to Kolkata and also an opportunity to see Durga Puja in Kolkata.

Kolkata and Durga Puja: – Durga Puja is a major festival of Bengalis, but now Durga Puja of Bengal is celebrated all over India. Kolkata was the capital of the British Raj for a long time, for this reason, Western education was first staged there, many Bengalis got Western education and were appointed in the railway and postal department and all over India from Bengal to Peshawar, from Jammu to Rameswaram. After leaving Bengal, Bengali people spread all over India. These people also took their customs with them. Today the Bengali version of Durga Puja can be seen all over the country. What is the difference between Durga Puja of Kolkata and Durga Puja of other places??? I will explain this on the basis of my experience in Durga Puja . A wide variation can be seen in the ways of celebrating Durga Puja in Bengal and Durga Puja in other places in India. The key to this diversity is hidden in history. In other parts of India, Durga Puja is purely a religious festival, with special emphasis on religious rituals and religious activities. Even in food and beverages, according to Hindu tradition, non-vegetarian dishes are strictly prohibited during the holy nine days of Navratri, many people fast for the holy nine days, and sacrificing daily food items and passing on fruits only. At the same time, Durga Puja in Bengal is a religious festival as well as a joyful festival, full of fun, enthusiasm.


Historical reasons: – During the Mughal rule, Durga-worship was forbidden in Bengal for a long time, because according to Islamic rituals, idol worship is anti-Islamic. After the victory of Britain’s East India Company in Bengal, Hindu landlords asked the officials of the East India Company for permission to install Durga Puja and Durga idols, British officials not only allowed idol installation and worship, but many British officers also Participated in the celebration of Durga Puja. Navakrishna Dev, the richest man of that time, organized Durga Puja and made Robert Clive the chief guest of the celebration, Robert Clive along with his chief officers participated in this worship with great enthusiasm.
Not only this, like a faithful Hindu, he also brought lotus flowers to offer at the feet of Goddess Durga. Now it was Navakrishnadeva’s turn to take on the responsibility of a good host. Non-vegetarian dishes and wine were presented in honor of the British officers, which were common at English parties of the time. This incident later took the form of a custom. In this way, in the Durga Puja of Kolkata, along with religious traditions, amalgamation of fun also started.
Another difference between Durga Puja in Kolkata and Durga Puja at other places is the pandal. ( A pandal in India is a fabricated structure, either temporary or permanent, that is used at many places such as either outside a building or in an open area such as along a public road).
Undoubtedly, the pandals of Kolkata are much bigger than any other Durga Puja pandal of any other place. In fact, the grand form of Durga Puja as seen in Kolkata cannot be seen anywhere else. Bengali life and Bengali culture can be seen in the pandal of Durga Puja. Each pandal has a theme, the whole pandal is based on this theme and inside there is a grand statue of Maa Durga. Durga Puja takes place every year, the idol of Maa Durga is almost the same, but the theme of the pandal changes every year. The children and the youth have the most enthusiasm and curiosity for the pandal. KHICHDI :-There is another difference – that of Prasad. In Kolkata’s Durga Puja pandal, khichdi is available in the prasad, delicious khichdi. This Khichdi is different from Khichdi of North India.


Bengali literature, magazines: – Annuals of various Bengali magazines (Puja Varshiki or Puja barshiki ) are published during Durga Puja in Kolkata.
Annuals of various Bengali magazines of various colours, many sizes and types can be seen at the stalls of magazines. Many famous magazines from which great personalities of Bengal like Rabindra Nath Tagore, Satyajit Ray, Upendrakishore Ray, Sukumar Ray, Subinoy Ray, Sudhabindu Biswas, Subhash Mukhopadhyay, Leela Majumdar, Nalini Das, Bijoya Ray, Sandip Ray, Sujoy Shome etc were associated can also be seen here in the stalls. I had only heard the names of these magazines, watching them was a different experience(yes, watching because I didn’t know Bangla so I cannot read them). It was very sad to not know Bangla, there was no magazine available in Hindi. Only one magazine, Statesmen’s Yearbook, was available in English and I had to be satisfied by purchasing it. The names of the newspapers and magazines of Bengal who made their special contribution in the freedom struggle of the country were echoing in my mind. Another subject got my attention – no doubt that English has got the status of a global language, Hindi-speaking areas are full of English newspapers and magazines, but in Kolkata, literature has made a lot of progress in the regional language. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2021/06/20/yoga-how-tech-yogi-saw-the-light-of-the-future-in-the-brahmastra-of-the-hindu-nationalists/

Politicization of the festival:- BIG[ B ] WATCHING YOU

“THE MOST effective way to destroy people is to deny and obliterate their own understanding of their HISTORY.” (George Orwell )

The saddest thing about Kolkata Durga Puja is the politicization of Durga Puja. I have never seen so much politicization of any festival anywhere in the country. Every year it is increasing like an epidemic. Stalls of various political parties can be seen outside the pandal of any Durga Puja, outside the pandal the whole field is filled with flags of political parties. Durga Puja pandals are now known for the interference of various political parties. It becomes extreme when the flag of Ruler Party is visible on public transport vehicles too. Sometimes it seems that Durga Puja has been completely politicized. Once the nationalists of Bengal took the inspiration of the Gita and proclaimed independence all over India. Today in the same Bengal a festival is being politicized due to pity politics.

Ancient Durga idols that have been excavated by the Department of Archeology in different parts of the country

Deoband: Root of terrorism in South Asia

Modern Islamic terrorism has its roots in the Wahhabi ideology. This ideology of Arabia then also came to India.(Deoband ,Saharanpur seventy five miles north of Delhi) Today this imported ideology has poisoned the whole South-Asia. Terrorism is not only getting strengthened by this ideology but remains the biggest obstacle in the way of Muslims eager to join the mainstream of India.

Announcement of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.

THIS IS OUR MESSAGE TO ALL MUSLIM BROTHERS:- Today jihad is an obligation for all Muslim men and women; an obligation upon them, upon their wealth, and upon their sons. These infidels came to our country to destroy our Islam. If you call yourself a Muslim, come and work for Islam. The infidels are lying to you when they say they are giving you assistance. Be sure, they are never truthful in what they say. Never believe them. They are the sons of Satan. If anyone helps these infidels in any way, that person is an infidel, and that person will be given the death sentence. Quickly withdraw your hand of support for the government. If anyone does not withdraw their support, they will be sentenced under Sharia law. Do not go to school. If anyone goes to school they will be sentenced under Sharia law. If anyone shaves their beards, or cuts it shorter than Sharia rules, and if anyone goes to a dog fight, or if a driver takes them to a dog fight, they will face a very strong sentence. You must grow opium; this is a jihad against the infidels, and be sure that no one can eradicate your fields.

Government members should be beheaded, and their property should be looted.

Mosque in Zangabad February 2006 (THE WRONG ENEMY – CARLOTTA GALL)

2021:- An Afghan woman posted a despondent tweet to her American friend.

“The Taliban are clearly visible from the window. Every house is being carefully searched. Women who worked in the media and government offices of the former government are facing rape, forced marriage with Afghan terrorists and the death penalty”. waiting for turn——

Do any of these words reflect the effect of time? Whereas there is a gap of fifteen years between the two statements. Radical Islam acts like an eraser, or has been doing so. It is opposed to the changes that take place over time. Islam is committed to sending the whole world to the time of Muhammad. This is completely different from the the theory that science has proposed(Time never stops it is unstoppable and also constantly changing). It is an unscientific but an extremely powerful force of belief and ideology. Fanaticism and beliefs can mislead the speed of time. Or fanaticism and belief want to swindle time to their advantage. This is one of the few disadvantages of globalization of the world. Ideology, disease can take over the whole world in a very short amount of time. The events of Corona and 9/11 have proved this. Now it would not take centuries for the plague to come from Europe to South Asia. In the same way, Islam which came out of Arabia and reached Spain and Sindh (now part of Pakistan) would not take years. 9/11 – American travelers, American planes, American buildings, pilots educated in American universities just Islamic ideology and a world power was on his knees.

No weapon can stand against any ideology. Ideology can use any object as a weapon according to the time. Islamic fundamentalists are very well aware of this.

SHEIKH SALMAN AL-AUDA

Concept of jihad involved using all means possible : “All aspects of life are a battlefield . For him, the rifle, the airplane, ideology ,and the economy were all weapons . Islam has the power and the capability to establish an international regime on the foundations of Islamic justice. He also hoped that he could witness this victory: He envisioned the struggle leading to the worldwide spread of Islamic belief: “Islam has the power and the capability to establish an international regime on the foundations of Islamic justice. ” He also hoped that he could witness this victory:—– I seek that Allah the highest will provide us with comfort by giving us the privilege to see the realization of the fate of the dominant infidel nations of the West, and that he will bring joy to our hearts, and those of our descendants, by our witnessing the fall of these entities that took control over the Muslims…and I plead with him to take revenge. Allah will take revenge against the tyrants with his sword in this world and in the world to come. (Hatred’s Kingdom – Dore Gold)

Revenge against non-Muslims is not just a word, it does not describe the action of personal vendetta, but in this act of revenge, there is an idea of ​​complete destruction of non-Islamic culture. The radical Islamic vision of the future is hidden in this revenge action. . Revenge is actually an Islamic industry. This retaliation includes the killing of the enemy (no doubt non-Muslim). Interest in business is a dirty concept. This notion is enough to strangle any industry. Away from modern education, good Muslims study courses from the time of Aurangzeb (the arch-Muslim ruler). Away from modern technology. Equipped with a 300 year old course, these youths can do only medieval employment. The whole economy is based not on construction but on destruction. Robbery, arson, rape, selling of women are all permissible.

Terrorism is the most deadly weapon of Islam

These attitudes were common in Saudi mosques as well. Speaking in one of the main mosques of Mecca on October 6, 2001, Sheikh Wajdi Hamzeh al-Ghazawi gave no indication of remorse over the attacks on America. He was also highly defensive about the term “terrorism”. (HATRED’S KINGDOM How Saudi Arabia Supports the New Global Terrorism).

The [kind of] terror [in Arabic, “striking of fear”] that is permissible according to Islamic law is terrifying the cowards, the hypocrites, the secularists, and the rebels, by imposing punishments [according to the religious] law of Allah…. The meaning of the term “terror” that is used by the media…is the jihad for the sake of Allah. Jihad is the peak of Islam. Moreover, there are religious scholars who view it as the sixth pillar of Islam.

Every Islamic Fanatics is familiar with this Deadly Weapon .It has been taught to him since childhood. These ideas have been passed on from generation to generation. . South Asian Muslims, who see Mir Qasim’s attack as the light of Islam. Every Muslim invader as a Muslim hero.(MIR QUASIM,MUHAMMAD GHAURI,MAHMUD GHAZNAVI,BABUR)All these invaders were mass murderers of non-Muslims, destroyers of idolatry and followers of the fundamentalist ideology of Islam. Converted Muslims see the victory of Islam in every attack and every tyranny, the period before Islam’s arrival in South Asia is described in the books of Madrasa’s as a time of darkness. The history of South Asian Muslims are very limited and malicious.

What’s in a name? That which we call a rose, by any other name would smell as sweet. (Shakespeare) Unfortunately, this applies not only to good things but also to bad things. Taliban became a HYBRIDIZATION OF DEOBANDISM and Salafism (supporting Islam as it had been under the prophet Muhammad and his immediate successors) which the Wahhabi presence of the 1980s had made possible . Ahmed Rashid – Taliban

Deoband (Dar-ul-Uloom)

From 1820 some Moulvees of India declaring them selves to be disciples of Syud Ahmed of Bareilly, whom they styled Ameerul Momencen and Iman Homan (chief and leader of the faithful), began to preach the Wahabee creed in this country… They preached to the common people that Hindustan is now a Darool Harab (or country of the infidels): therefore it behoved all the good Mehomedans to wage war against the infidels. Moulvee Syud Emdad Ali Khan, An Epitome of the History of the Wahabees, 1871

History of Deoband

Deoband (Dar-ul-Uloom) was founded in 1866 by two jihadis.
The basic duty of this educational institution was to make India an Islamic nation according to the Wahhabi ideology (Jihad), but after 1857 (the Mughal Empire of India was defeated), the British government did not accept any such Islamic ideology. “After 1857, the main (Hidden) objective of Deoband was to bring Muslim art, science, civilization, and culture to the common people. And under the education system, the study of Quran, reading of Hadith was made compulsory. Visiting the tomb of Muslim Pir, Music and dance were declared un-Islamic (this was the way of spreading Muslim art and civilization) All Muslims were asked to keep distance from the modern changes taking place in India, British courts etc. The emphasis was placed on maintaining the ideology of Jihad in its original form under the most radical ideology of Wahhabi and Islam. Very cleverly maintaining the original nature of jihad, it was emphasized that now is not the right time for jihad.

Jehad also is a means of discovering the truth, of finding out what man should do in order to fulfil the law. Even search for knowledge is an aspect of Jehad and has been ranked as a Jehad-e-Akbar, that is to say, it is regarded as a greater struggle as contra-distinguished from Jehad Bil-Saif (striving with sword) which is described as a Jehad-e-Asghar, that is, Jehad on the minor scale.

At the age of five, children were admitted to the Deoband madarassa, until they were young, they lived in the madarassa. A brainwashed Islamic theological soldier, a robot army of Islamic fundamentalism. (emotionless) Soon the Wahhabis, who came out of the Deoband Educational Institute, wrote a new chapter of bigotry. Soon the old radical Islamic ideology was further sharpened by Deoband in South Asia. Thousands of “holy Muslims” emanating from Deoband soon started painting the whole South Asia in their favorite colour. The Deobandis carried the modern orthodox Islamic ideology out of the Arabian desert to every corner of South Asia.

Rise of Deoband in Pakistan and Afghanistan

“THE WOMEN OF THAT LAND

ARE OF SUCH DELECTABLE BEAUTY

ONE COULD SLAY A HUNDRED FIRANGIS

WITH THE POWER OF HER BUTTOCKS.” (Firangis A foreigner, especially a white person. Kashmiri Akbarnama Afghanistan)

PATHANS IN AMBUSH (1840 BY LIEUTENT JAMES RATTERY FROM HIS COSTUMES OF THE VARIOS TRIBES OF AFGHAUNISTAN

There was anger towards foreigners in Afghanistan due to the Anglo-Afghan War (1839). This anger had prepared the perfect pitch in Afghanistan for the development of the Wahhabi ideology. The Anglo-Afghan war is a long series. This was the beginning of a conflict between the big guns (Soviet Union – UK) and local fundamentalists. Soon the struggle of imperialism and radicalism wrote a new chapter in history, the Western imperialist ideology, armed with modern technology, clashed with the fierce fighters armed with radical Islamic ideology on the tribal of Afghanistan. And the followers of Wahhabi ideology took full advantage of this situation. Rigid lifestyle, tribalistic thinking, glorification of murder, inter-tribal slitting, in spite of all this they all had a common enemy– The non-Islamic foreigner. The dream of defeat of the non-Islamic was overshadowed by all mutual enmity.

India Pakistan Partition:-

Many Deobandis migrated to Pakistan after India’s independence. Jamaat-e Ulama-e Pakistan was established in Pakistan by Mufti-Mahmud. He was a Deobandi and had a firm belief in the Wahhabi fundamentalist ideology. Mufti Mahmud was also the Chief Minister of the North West Frontier of Pakistan. Presently his son Fazal Ur Rahman is the president of Jamaat-e-Ulema-e Pakistan. Because of the Anglo-Afghan war, the Afghans, who considered every western country and western people their enemy, considered the non-believing communists to be born enemies. Due to the Afghan policies of the Soviet Union, the number of Deoband madsrassas in the border areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan and the number of students enrolling in Deoband madarassas increased tremendously. The hardline ideology of Deoband madarassas came very useful to the Islamic forces in the “Holy War” upon the arrival of the Soviet Union in Afghanistan.

THE GREAT GAME BEGINS

Educated fighters from Deoband Madarassa in Pakistan blew the bugle of jihad against the Soviet Union. In the American effort to make Afghanistan the Vietnam of the Soviet Union, America provided a lot of money to the Deoband madarassas, the fusion of Deoband and Wahhabi was very useful here. Deobandi madarassas also received loads of money from Gulf Countries for the propagation of Wahhabi. The rulers of Pakistan, and the army also successfully used this Holi fighters (Useful Idiots) in their anti-India foreign policy. The street goons became the heroes of the Islamic world overnight.
New enemies of communist imperialism on the world stage in changed circumstances.

“ALL TALIBAN ARE ISI TALIBAN. IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO GO TO AFGHANISTAN WITHOUT THE HELP OF THE ISI. EVERYONE SAYS THIS.” (Brother of a Pakistani sucide bomber killed in Afghanistan ). The street goons became the heroes of the Islamic world overnight. “HE WAS NOT EVEN STREET SMART. HE WAS SO STUPID IT WAS EASY FOR THE ISI TO USE HIM.” (Hafizullah Khan about Mullah Omer)
The power struggle in Afghanistan began as soon as the Soviet Union left Afghanistan. The deobandis fully cooperated with the Taliban who believed in the most radical ideology. Many Taliban leaders and fighters were educated in the madarassas of the deobandis. A tribal fanatic ideology was now seeking expansion, flourishing with Pakistan, Gulf countries, American help. Osama bin Laden’s al-Qaeda (the concept of Global Islam) together with the local Taliban of Afghanistan and the Pakistani army soon made the whole world aware of their unity and alliance. The ideology of this alliance was completely based on the Islamic ideology of Deoband.

DEOBAND & THEIR SECRET WEAPON

Deoband used another secret weapon to avoid a direct confrontation with the regime in India’s democratic system and to maintain its importance in the daily life of every Muslim. —– Fatwa. Efforts were made under the fatwa to make Sharia an integral part of the lifestyle of every Muslim, it continues unabatedly even today.

Fatwa:- Fatwa means guidance on any subject of life according to Sharia. Fatwa is not the opinion of any mufti or religious person. Only an Islamic organization that has the authority to issue a fatwa can issue it. deoband has got this right. It is mandatory for every Muslim to follow a fatwa. deoband Fatwa:- There will be no such thing in the daily routine of life on which fatwa has not been given. From getting up in the morning till going to sleep at night, everything comes under the purview of fatwa. What deoband thinks for non-Muslims in the light of Quran and Hadith can be inferred from some fatwas.

UNSPASH

Heart wrenching Fatwas:-

What should a true Muslim do to an animal that he has kept for sexual intercourse?

If a goat is pregnant then having sex with goat is halal or haram?

Is it wrong to have sex with a minor child and with a goat?

Halal :- The word Halal is used for lawful in Islamic law. Haram :- Forbidden in Islamic law.

Deoband’s thoughts on the subject :- “If there is no ejaculation (inside the animal) its meat and milk are Halal without question,” rule the Ulema of Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, “But if there is ejaculation, it is better to kill the animal and bury its flesh. No one should eat it, though it is not haram to eat it.” And so on.

How much rights should non-Muslims (Hindus, Christians, Jews) get according to Deoband )

Non-Islamic:- The lowest people of the universe. THE WORD Kafir is also used as a term of abuse, The Fatwa-i-Rizvia . But in sharia it is a legal term. According to shariah he who is not a Muslim is a kafir . These are rights which flow from the grace, so to say, of Islamic power and the Islamic State. And they are accorded even in nominal terms- solely in view of their accepting and submitting themselves to the suzerainty of Is lam. Kafirs as such have not even these minimal, nominal rights. There is no covenant between Muslims and them.

Those Indians who consider every religion equally, see mosque-temple, church with a single glance, believe in the supremacy of the constitution,
Such people who believe in nation supreme, not religion, who see equality in the religious texts of Hindus and the Quran, such secular people are also ENEMIES OF ISLAM for Deoband. These are utterances of kufr, they declare. A person who has such beliefs and teaches such beliefs is not a Muslim but an infidel and an apostate, they declare. He is a reprobate and a heretical inventor, in fact an infidel and an apostate, they repeat. Muslims should keep away from him rather than listen to his infidel utterances. This is pure totalitarian ideology. Just like Marxists, Maoists. Deoband wants to control the life of every Muslim in India, and fatwa is one such instrument. These fatwas are very important for Islamic believers. These fatwas have the same importance in Islam as the decisions of the Supreme Court in a democracy. Fatwas are compiled and kept. Maulana who study Islamic subjects and associated with mosques study these fatwas and on the basis of this give their opinion on any problem. The number of these fatwas is in the thousands, and they are increasing year after year. A collection of fatwas is also published from time to time.

Radical Islam and its meaning in South Asia

We are all aware of the horrors of the Taliban, but the exploits of their ancestors were many times more frightening. Due to the non-availability of information technology and due to the blindness of other countries of the world, they could be recorded only in the history books. I will not go too far back here and talk only about the coming into existence of Pakistan and atrocities on non-Muslims.

A Knowledge of History, even of the darkest past, can be quite useful, even for the future. (Anatoly Markusha, Miracles on wheels)

1947__ The biggest exodus in human history, the massacre of Hindus, Sikhs, forced conversions, Of raping countless women, At the same time, it is also a saga of women’s sacrifice, bravery, and courage.

“The story tells how the Hindu Sikh population of this tiny village was attacked by 3000-strong-armed Muslims, how badly out weaponed and outnumbered, the besieged had to surrender, but how their women numbering 90 in order to “evade inglorious surrender” and save their honor jumped into a well “following the example of Indian women of by-gone days”. Only three of them were saved. “there was not enough water in the well to drown them all” The Statesman of April 15, 1947, narrates an event that took place in village Thoha Khalsa (PAKISTAN) of Rawalpindi District.

1971:- There was an order in writing to kill Hindus

“Senior Pakistani officers would later admit much of this targeting before a secret Pakistani postwar judicial inquiry.it noted that “senior officers like the C.O.A.S(CHIEF OF ARMY STAFF) & C.G.S(CHIEF OF GENERAL STAFF) were often noticed jokingly asking as to how many Hindus have been killed” one lieutenant colonel testified that lieutenant general A.A.K Niazi, who became the chief martial law administrator in East Pakistan & head of the army eastern command,” asked as to how many Hindus we had killed. In May, there was an order in writing to kill Hindus” from a brigadier (Niazi denied ordering the extermination the Hindus ) another lieutenant colonel said “there was a general feeling of hatred against Bengalis among the soldiers and the officers including generals. They were verbal instruction to eliminate Hindus” THE BLOOD TELEGRAM (INDIA’S SECREAT WAR IN EAST PAKISTAN -GARY J. BASS)

Crowd chanting Allah O Akbar slaughtered Hindus, raped women, four lakh people forced to become refugees in their own country Terrorism incidents become an everyday occurrence Countless bomb blasts The death of countless innocent people continues even today for forty years. ( If only the events and the place are named then it will be a work of many days) Is there any difference between all these heartbreaking incidents and the brutality of Taliban, or ISIS?

Is there any difference between all these heartbreaking incidents and the brutality of Taliban,& ISIS ? Is there a difference between the Jewish hatred of Hitler and the Hindu hatred of the Pakistan Army. Is there any difference between rape of Yezdi women by Islamic jihadists and rape of Hindu women? Is there any difference between communist assassin ideology and Islamic fundamentalist ideology? The ideology of the Taliban has not emerged suddenly, it is traced back centuries of Islamic brutality, and belief in terrorism. There is nothing like Good Taliban and Bad Taliban, terrorism can be used by any country in its interest for a short amount of time, but it is harmful in the long run. All the countries suffering from Islamic terrorism of the world should come on one platform, and unitedly oppose the Islamic fundamentalist ideology.

CREDITS:-

.THE WRONG ENEMY (CARLOTTA GALL) .The World of FATWAS OR THE SHARIAH IN ACTION (ARUN SHOURIE) .The Qur’anic Concept of War (Brig.S.K.Malik) .ISIS THE STATE OF TERRO (JESSICA STERN & J.M.BERGER) .HATRED’S KINGDOM How Saudi Arabia Supports the New Global Terrorism (DORE GOLD ) .GOD’S TERRORISTS The Wahhabi Cult and the Hidden Roots of Modern Jihad (CHARLES ALLEN) .THE BLOOD TELEGRAM (Gary .j Bass) .MUSLIM LEAGUE ATTACK ON SIKHS AND HINDUS IN THE PUNJAB 1947 COMPILED FOR THE SGPC BY (S GURBACHAN SINGH TALIB) .RETURN of a KING AN INDIAN ARMY IN AFGHANISTAN (WILLIAM DALRYMPLE)

SACHINDRA NATH SANYAL A great, forgotten freedom fighter.

Many people sacrificed their lives in the struggle for the freedom of India. But there were some great personalities who not only sacrificed their lives but also inspired thousands and thousands of people to fight for freedom. One such great revolutionary was —— Sachindranath Sanyal.

Who was Sachindra Nath Sanyal? Congress and Marxists made a malafide attempt to keep this greatest revolutionary in oblivion after independence. Why the struggles of this greatest revolutionary could not find a place in the history books.

A Glimpse of Sachin Da’s Contribution in India’s Freedom Struggle.

Sachindra Nath Sanyal spent twenty one years in prison out of fifty years of his life.

Sachindra Nath Sanyal was the only revolutionary who was sentenced to life imprisonment twice.

Sachindra Nath Sanyal also had three younger brothers. Jitendra Nath Sanyal, Rabindra Nath Sanyal, Bhupendra Nath Sanyal. Brothers of Sachindra Nath Sanyal were also active in the armed freedom struggle, due to which all these brothers also had to go to prison many times. and spent years in jail in the freedom struggle.

The book “Bandi – jeevan”(A LIFE OF CAPTIVITY ) written by Sachindra Nath Sanyal is called the Bible of Indian revolutionaries, which was translated into more than twenty-eight languages and countless people who read this book chose the path of revolution for the independence of the country.

Sachindra nath Sanyal was the founder of “Hindustan Republican Association”

Sanyal was a close associate of the famous revolutionary Rash Bihari and Subhash Chandra Bose. Sachindra Nath Sanyal was the political teacher (GURU) of great revolutionaries like Chandrashekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, Trilokya Chakraborty, Bhagwati Charan Vohra, Nalini Kishore Guh, Baba Prithvi Singh, Sukhdev, Rajguru, Lala Hardayal, Ajit Singh . Sachindra Nath Sanyal was popularly known as Sachin Da among revolutionaries.

This country and countrymen will always be indebted to Sachin Da. His entire family struggled for the freedom of the country, Hardly any other example can be found. Sachindranath Sanyal was not only a revolutionary, a great philosopher, writer, teacher and creator of the entire army of revolutionaries. There is no revolutionary who wasn’t influenced by Sachindra da. Sachindra Nath Sanyal was a great warrior who attempted to re-arm revolution in India after the revolt of 1857. Well, I personally like to evaluate any person on the basis of work, not on the basis of that person’s family, and personal relationships, but Sachindra Sanyal’s subject is something very different . Sachin da’s never giving up and striving nature was developed by his family. Apart from this, very little has been written on Sachindranath Sanyal, and that is why very few people know about him so I decided to write this post to make more and more people acquainted with Sachin Da.

Life introduction:-

Sachindranath Sanyal was born on 3rd June 1893 in his ancestral residence in Madanpura locality of Varanasi. His father Harinath Sanyal was a nationalist person. His mother Kshirodhavasini was an indomitable, courageous and pious woman. They raised their children in a nationalist environment. His father was an accountant in the army. He was transferred from place to place. Due to which the childhood of Shachindranath Sanyal was spent in cities like Kolkata, Banaras, Peshawar etc. Two childhood incidents which reveal Sachin da’s nature and determination.
When Sachin da’s father was posted in Shimla (the summer capital of those days) he once saved his younger brother Jitendra by risking his life. (he saved the life of his younger brother who had slipped and was about to fall from the hill of Shimla)
Once a young British horse rider had pushed his mother while riding a horse, on which Sachindra da beat up that defiant young man. His father died in 1908, due to which Sachin Da’s family shifted to their ancestral house in Banaras (Varanasi). For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2021/06/20/yoga-how-tech-yogi-saw-the-light-of-the-future-in-the-brahmastra-of-the-hindu-nationalists/

Encouraging Arjuna the war-bearer.

To understand Sachin Da, one has to understand that era. The era of the nineteenth century was the era of “renaissance of India and mainly of Bengal”. The national movement was getting social, political, economic and moral support from this Bengal renaissance. Poems of Michael Madhusudan Dutt, Ranglal Bandyopadhyay, with national sentiment And most importantly —– Bankim Chandra Chatterjee.
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee reinterpreted the Gita, the holy book of the Hindus. Durgeshnandini, Anand Math and Devi Chaudharani written by Bankimchandra also presented armed rebellion against injustice as an ideal. अहिंसा परमो धर्मः धर्म हिंसा यथैव च. Non Violence is the ultimate religion (Dharma) So too is violence in service of Dharma. Even killing a Brahman who has come to kill you is not a sin. Shri Krishna chanted the mantra of Shakti during Kurukshetra, encouraging Arjuna the war-bearer. After a long time, those mantras again filled the youth with hope. In his novel Anand Math, Bankim Chandra wrote the valor of the revolutionaries who challenged the British and made the Indians realize that freedom is their first right, which is the solemn duty of every Indian to achieve. The novel, based on the revolt of the monks of Bengal against British imperialism, had a song on the worship of the motherland. The title of this song was —- Vande Mataram. Later this title became the epitome of opposition to British imperialism. Its popularity can be understood from the fact that it was accepted for greetings throughout the country. The exploitation of British imperialism had created discontent throughout the country. The freedom struggle of 1857, the French Revolution, the Irish struggle, Japan’s victory in the Russia-Japanese War had strengthened the spirit of nationalism. Harinath Sanyal, influenced by the spirit of nationalism, admitted Sachindra and his younger brother to the Anushilan Samiti. Along with the exercise, the youth were also imparted the education of nationalism. Gradually such organizations were becoming popular among educated middle class youth in other parts of the country as well.

ANUSHILAN :-(To give serious thought to a subject).
It was founded by Satish Chandra Basu in 1902. It was also known as the first school of revolutionaries.
It is clear from seeing the symbol of Anushilan Samiti that this committee had a firm belief in the concept of motherland of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee. The only objective of this organization was to prepare the members of Anushilan Samiti for any sacrifice for the motherland. Here the map of united India, and in clear letters, “जननी जन्म-भूमिश्च स्वर्गादपि गरियसी” (MOTHER AND MOTHERLAND ARE SUPERIOR EVEN TO HEAVEN) can be seen. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2021/01/25/bharat-mata-mandirmother-india-temple-and-vande-mataram/

After 1885, Ramesh Chandra Dutt, and Dadabhai Naoroji also started to attribute the poverty of India to British imperialism in the Congress sessions. In the famine of 1887-90, lakhs of people died in Bengal, the 1905 break-up(Bengal partition ) further ignited the flame of revolution. Swadeshi Swaraj, and boycott of foreign goods gained more momentum. Leaving the path of persuasion in the freedom movement, Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai (Garam-Dal) came out. Lala Lajpat Rai was imprisoned in 1907, Tilak in 1908. There were many cases against Bipinchandrapal. The British government resorted to harsh repression. Press Act, Arms Act was enacted. The repression of the British government further fueled militant nationalism. National movements gained more momentum. The thoughts of Sachindra Nath Sanyal were formed in this background.

FROM WHITE CITY TO CITY OF SHIVA

The ancestors of Sachindra Sanyal had settled in Benares (Varanasi)from Bengal. The ancestors of Sachindra da were a distinguished scholar. Impressed by his scholarship, Raja Chet Singh of Banaras had appointed him as a Pandit.

While working on Sachin da’s story, dusting off some old reading rooms and libraries in Banaras, I came to my attention to an article published in a years old magazine. In this short article written about Sachin Da
(barely ten lines) The author, Mrs. Monica Sanyal, who wrote this article, had written about the arrival of Sachin da’s ancestor to Benares and the appointment of a Pandit in the court of Raja Chet Singh. This was an extraordinary information for me. Because in this one line, the secret of nationalism of Sachin da’s family, and attachment to revolution was hidden.

During the time of Raja Chet Singh, a rebellion had failed in Banaras. What if this rebellion had been successful? Perhaps the country would have become independent on 15 August 1781 instead of 15 August 1947 (yes the dates are the same). Undoubtedly, the ancestors of Sachin da were closely associated with this rebellion due to the appointment of Pandit by Raja Chet Singh, and being a scholar, he must have been very well aware of the reasons for the failure of this rebellion. The upcoming generations were also affected by this. Naturally how Sachin da alone once again tried to make the country independent through armed revolution, created a revolutionary organization, united the revolutionaries across the country, The “failed revolution of Benaras” must have been behind this marathon effort. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2020/08/14/benares-rebellion-15august-1781/

The failure of the Banaras revolution, the first freedom struggle of 1857, the principle of Karma of Gita, the thoughts of Swami Vivekananda, Arvind Ghosh and many great revolutionaries of the world and their sacrifices can be seen in the philosophy of Sachin da. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2021/06/10/a-happily-tea-adict-country/

“Any man who tells you that an act of armed resistance-even if offered by ten men only-even if offered by men armed with stones-any men who tell you that such an act of resistance is premature, imprudent, or dangerous, any and every such man should be at once spurned and spat at, for remark you this and recollect that somewhere and some how and by somebody a beginning must be made and that the first act of resistance is always and must be premature imprudent and dangerous”

This statement of an Irish revolutionary has been mentioned by Sachindra Nath Sanyal in his book Bandi Jeevan. This statement seems as if it has been written for Sachindra Nath Sanyal . Never give up, complete dedication and endless effort.

I TELL YOU: – ONE MUST STILL HAVE CHAOS IN ONESELF TO GIVE BIRTH TO A DANCING STAR. I TELL YOU STILL HAVE CHAOS IN YOURSELVES. ( FRIEDRICH NIETZCHE) 

CHAOS IS NECESSARY TO THE BIRTH OF NEW STAR Sachindra Sanyal has also mentioned this sentence in his book.

Beginning of Revolutionary Life :- The revolutionary life of Sachindra Sanyal started from Varanasi. Sanyal established the branch of Anushilan Samiti in Varanasi. When Anushilan Samiti was banned, its name was changed to Young Man Association. There was also an internal committee of this organization. Young people used to sign with their blood in front of Mother Kali and become its members. The members of the association used to cut white pumpkins during Kali Puja. This white pumpkin was a symbol of British rule.
As the right hand of Rash Bihari Bose, Sachindra Nath Sanyal established many revolutionary centers. About eight thousand members of Hindustan-Ghadar Party, a well-known organization of revolutionaries, The passengers coming to India by ships were also taken in their crew immediately. Komagatamaru, Nishanmaru, Tosha Maru, SS Korea, etc. On the advice of Rash Bihari Bose, an attempt was made for a mass dedicated revolution like the revolution of 1857. Vishnu Ganesh Pingale, the leader of the Ghadar Party, met Rash Bihari Bose in Banaras(Varanasi). Sachindra Nath Sanyal came to Punjab for the purpose of revolution, after coming here he met Kartar Singh Sarabha, and other leaders of Ghadar Party. Sachindra Nath Sanyal also gave some revolvers and bullets to Kartar Singh Sarabha. After some time Rash Bihari Bose took over the leadership of Punjab. By going to Banaras, Punjab and many military cantonments of the country, the revolutionaries prepared soldiers. The soldiers of the Miyamari, Ferozepur Military Cantonments got ready for the revolution on February 19, 1915. Unfortunately, the secret of revolution was exposed and the revolutionaries were arrested.

CELLCULAR JAIL

KAALA PAANI:-(CELLCULAR JAIL) This prison remains in Port Blair, the capital of Andaman and Nicobar. Now it has been converted into a national monument. Cellular Jail– A prison surrounded by water on all sides, due to which no one could escape from here. It was the most infamous prison during the British period. Here the revolutionaries were kept and treated inhumanly.

FIRST LIFE IMPRISONMENT

Sachindra Nath Sanyal went to the military cantonment of Varanasi many times to prepare the soldiers for the revolution. Ten powerful bombs were also given to Vishnu-Ganesh Pingale by the revolutionaries of Varanasi. Pingle got arrested with bombs in Meerut military cantonment. The soldiers of the military cantonment of Varanasi refused to hand over their weapons. Many soldiers were court-martialed. Sachindra Nath Sanyal was arrested on 26 June 1915 in Varanasi. Sachindra Nath Sanyal was imprisoned in Lahore jail in handcuffs and shackles. Then brought back to Varanasi, trial was held in the special tribunal. Along with Sachindra Nath Sanyal, his two younger brothers Ravindra and Jeetendra, Damodar Swaroop of Kota were also trialed. Sachindra Nath Sanyal and Girija Babu were sentenced to life imprisonment. Jitendra Nath Sanyal, brother of Sachindra Nath Sanyal, was sentenced to two years. Sachindra Nath Sanyal was placed under house arrest in Gorakhpur. All the property of Sachindra Nath Sanyal was confiscated and mother of Sachindra Nath Sanyal was thrown out of the house.

This great revolutionary was sent to the Cellular Jail in Andaman. In the Cellular Jail, Sanyal was given the job of plowing like a bull in an oil mill with a blindfold on his eyes. For refusing this work, he was given a more severe punishment. After Britain’s victory in World War I, amnesty was given to political prisoners. Under this amnesty, Sachindra was released on February 1920. Immediately after his release he met many national leaders for the release of other prisoners. A few days later, Sachindra Nath Sanyal was also married to Pratibha Devi.

Contact with Gandhi :- On the initiative of Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das, The revolutionaries assured Gandhiji that they would not take any revolutionary action for one year and would fully cooperate with Gandhiji. It happened, but when Mahatma Gandhi withdrew his first non-cooperation movement after the Chauri Chaura incident, the revolutionaries again took up arms. Sachindra Sanyal founded the famous revolutionary organization Hindustan Republican Association in 1922. Sachindra Sanyal made about twenty centers of this revolutionary organization in North India. He also wrote pamphlets under the name “request to the countrymen” and “Revolutionary”. The session of the Hindustan Republican Association was held in Kolkata in 1924. The documents prepared by Sachindra Sanyal about the continuation of both open and secret movements in the country. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2020/10/02/gandhi-irrelevant-on-social-media/

CELLULAR JAIL

Life Imprisonment For The Second Time

Soon Sachindra Sanyal was again imprisoned for giving impetuous speeches. This time he got a harsh punishment of two years. A few days after his release from jail, Sachindra Sanyal was associated with the KAKORI TRAIN ACTION (Kakori conspiracy case Years later, on 9th August 2021, the name of “Kakori Conspiracy” has been changed to “Kakori Train Action. )The revolutionaries looted the government treasury going by train at a place called Kakori near Lucknow. Revolutionaries associated with the Hindustan Republican Association were involved in this robbery.
The police arrested many people in connection with this case. Finally, the court sentenced Rajender Nath Lahiri, Thakur Roshan Singh, Ashfaq Ullah Khan, Ram Prasad Bismil to death in the Kakori case.
Sachindra Nath Sanyal, Sachindra Nath Bakshi, Yogesh Chandra Chatterjee, Mukund Lal, Govind Charan were imprisoned for life under Kala Pani (Sent to Port Blair Cellular Jail) Manmanath Gupta for 14 years. Many more people were jailed for many years. Sachin Da was released in 1937. He was arrested again in 1939 when the Second World War started. This time it was alleged that he was attempting an armed revolution in India with the help of Japan. A prisoner got tuberculosis in the jail, in those days people were very afraid of tuberculosis, as a result the prison staff refused to treat this prisoner. Sachindra Nath Sanyal himself took the responsibility of this prisoner, while serving this prisoner he himself became a victim of tuberculosis. This great revolutionary died of tuberculosis on 6th February 1943. The effort to make the impossible possible, the desire to sacrifice everything for the country is what makes this great soul different than others. The history of revolution and freedom struggle of India cannot be imagined without Sachindra Sanyal. There is no page in the history of India’s freedom struggle where Sachin da’s clear impression cannot be felt. As long as the freedom struggle of India will be remembered by the people, the sacrifice of Sachindra Nath Sanyal, the life of struggle will continue to inspire people.

VANDE MATRAM

National Symbols and Identity

A short glimpse of why I decided to write this post.

A few days ago, my wife had to go for corona vaccination, I had already been vaccinated two months ago so I was aware of the corona vaccination center nearest to my house, on the request of my wife, I agreed to go with her .The corona vaccination center was five kilometers away from my house. It was a government hospital. Surprisingly there was silence when we both reached the Corona Vaccination Center .Then a nurse showed up, we asked her for information on corona vaccination. She pointed out to the primary school adjacent to the hospital, understanding his gesture, we proceeded towards the primary school, why the vaccination was in the school instead of the hospital? I soon came to know the reason of this from the people who have came their to get vaccinated. Now the speed of vaccination is getting fast, and due to more and more people coming for vaccination, patients of other diseases were facing problems in the hospital, the hospital ground was small. I found the decision of the hospital administration to be right. Due to Corona, all the schools are closed, in such a situation there is no problem to use the school building as a vaccination center.

The vaccination campaign was going on in full swing in the school. There were separate queues of women and men. My wife went to the women’s row and queued up. There were like fifteen, twenty women in the queue, all waiting for their turn wearing masks. (Corona vaccination is free all over India) I had few minutes so I started looking carefully at the school courtyard, buildings, artefacts made by school students Bright colors were used extensively in the artworks made by young children. Similarly, the geometrical figures made by the children were also full of bright, dazzling colors.
Suddenly my attention was drawn to an artwork depicting national symbols.
Seeing a fair chance to check my general knowledge, I decided to read it. To my surprise I was unaware of a national identity. (National sweet – Jalebi.)I was astonished even more when I saw the name of Hockey written in the national game. Under the right to information, some people had asked the government for information regarding the national game, According to the information given by the government, India does not have any National sport. It was a misinformation about the national identity inside the school building! I felt very strange, I looked for any staff of the school but I didn’t find any, I saw a suggestion box . I quickly wrote information related to this topic on a piece of paper and dropped it in the suggestion box. Two or three days after this incident, I got a call from my childhood friend Saurabh. While talking, I mentioned this incident to him, he was also surprised. I mentioned symbols of national identity to my son, he was also not aware of some symbols, so under general information I thought of writing a post on this topic.

FEW IMPORTENT NATIONAL SYMBOLS

NATIONAL -FLAG

The national flag of India has three equal-proportioned stripes. Saffron is at the top, white in the middle and green at the bottom. There is a blue wheel in the middle of the white stripe. This wheel is taken from the Ashoka Pillar kept in the Sarnath Museum. There are twenty-four spoked in it, which symbolize being working (moving) round the clock. Saffron color symbolizes courage, white color symbolizes peace and coexistence, while green color represents fertility and prosperity of the country.

NATIONAL ANTHEM

The national anthem of India is Jana Gana-Mana. This national anthem is written by the great poet Rabindranath Tagore. The national anthem of India was originally written in Bengali. After independence, the independent Constituent Assembly of the country accepted it as the national anthem on 24 January 1950. Instructions are issued from time to time regarding the correct version of the National Anthem, the occasions on which it should be played or sung and the need to give respect to the National Anthem in order to maintain the proper dignity on these occasions.

NATIONAL SONG

The national song of India is Vande Mataram. The national song is taken from the book Anand Math written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee. The song vande Mataram was composed by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee in 1870, in 1882 this song was added to the book Anand Math. In his novel Anand Math, Bankim Chandra wrote the valor of the revolutionaries who challenged the British and made the Indians realize that freedom is their first right, which is the solemn duty of every Indian to achieve. The novel, based on the revolt of the monks of Bengal against British imperialism, had a song on the worship of the motherland. The title of this song was —- Vande Mataram. Later this title became the epitome of opposition to British imperialism. Its popularity can be understood from the fact that it was accepted for greetings throughout the country. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2021/01/25/bharat-mata-mandirmother-india-temple-and-vande-mataram/

ASHOKA LION CAPITAL (NATIONAL EMBLEM OF INDIA )

The Lion Capital is the national emblem of India. It has been taken from the Ashoka Lot found in Sarnath. It has four lions standing facing all the four directions. The Dhamma Chakra was built on these four lions, which was found in many pieces in the excavation. These four lions are standing on a solid base. There are also four other animals on the base. Each of these four animals has its place as a symbol of Buddhism: the lion represents Sakyasimha, lion of the Sakya clan, with the voice of a lion; the elephant signifies Sakyamuni entering the womb of his mother Mayadevi in her dream, but also Sakyamuni as the tamer of wild elephants; the horse, besides being a symbol of temporal royalty, is the vehicle that carried Prince Siddhartha on his journey of renunciation; finally, the bull is the great inseminator, here symbolising the Buddha’s teaching, the Dharma. The horse and elephant together support the Wheel-turning Monarch. In the center is the Dhammachakra. (ASHOKA THE SEARCH FOR INDIA’S LOST EMPEROR.page 334.335) For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2020/12/03/hindu-philosophy-and-the-importance-of-peace-9-11-1893-9-112001/

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LOTUS

Lotus :- The national flower of India is lotus. In ancient Hindu civilization, it has the status of a sacred flower. It has always been found in the description of Hindu gods and goddesses and in the picture stories. In many sculptures, Gautam Buddha is also depicted sitting on a lotus flower, or in a meditative posture. Many mythological stories are related to this flower, it has also played a major role in the first freedom struggle of India. Roti(Indian bread ) and lotus were the symbols of rebellion in the first freedom struggle. Lotus is found in abundance in almost the whole India, especially in the rural areas of Bengal.

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GANGA (GANGES)

National River:- The Ganges River is considered the most sacred river by the Hindus. It originates from the Himalayas and joins the Bay of Bengal. In this journey, the river Ganges completes a journey of about 2500 km. Many ancient and religious cities of Hindus are situated on the banks of this river. HARIDWAR,PRAYAGRAJ KANPUR,VARANASI,MIRZAPUR,FARRUKHABAD, KANNAUJ,BHAGALPUR,PATNA,HAJIPUR,MUNGER,KOLKATA etc.) Many religious festivals of Hindus are organized in the cities situated on the banks of this river. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2021/01/18/makar-sankranti-is-an-ancient-hindu-festival-or-the-burden-of-old-tradition/

A GIGANTIC BANYAN TREE 

VAT VRIKSHA (BANYAN TREE)

The Banyan tree has got the status of the National tree of India. It is found in abundance in almost all of South Asia. Many religious customs and festivals of Hindus are associated with this tree. The Vat Vriksha is also called the Banyan tree. There is a story behind it. The Banyan tree is huge, due to which many shopkeepers used to set up their small shop under the Banyan tree in the village, countryside, naturally the Banyan tree also protected them from heat, winter rain, and for this, they had to spend no money. Or no special effort had to be made. In India, the merchants are also called Baniya, for this reason, the British started calling this tree by the name of Banyan.  Hindu women fast and worship the banyan tree for the long life of their husbands. Surely this tradition must have started in ancient times, influenced by the vastness of the Banyan tree, and its long life. In Hindus, in such religious festivals, there is an association of that festival with some ancient event. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2021/07/07/how-imperialism-turned-a-tree-of-longevity-into-a-tree-of-death/

JALEBI

NATIONAL SWEET

The national sweet of India is Jalebi. Equally popular all over India. A staple breakfast in North India. In North India, it is eaten with milk, curd, and rabri. It is also mentioned in ancient religious texts. In modern times, many culinary experts have done many experiments with Jalebi, and have found methods of making it in different ways.

NATIONAL BIRD

Peacock has been the hallmark of Indian culture. It is mentioned a lot in ancient scriptures. Lord Krishna of Hindus is depicted with peacock feathers since ancient times. Peacock is mentioned as the vehicle of Kartikeya, the son of Lord Shiva. It is represented by carvings in all the major ancient buildings of India. It also had a prominent place in the Painting of India. Peacock is also called the king of birds in India due to its unique beauty, charming color. When the peacock dances with its wings spread in the rainy season, then a wonderful, panoramic view can be seen. The peacock was declared the national bird of India on 26 January 1963.
PEACOCK meat was eaten in ancient times.

Formerly, in the kitchen of Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi,(ASHOKA ) hundreds of thousands of animals were killed every day to make curry. But now with the writing of this Dharma edict only three creatures, two peacocks and a deer, are killed, and the deer not always. And in time, not even these three creatures will be killed.

At present the hunting of peacock is completely banned. There is a provision of imprisonment for any person from three years to seven years for hunting a peacock.

TIGER

Goddess Durga, a symbol of power in Hinduism, can always be seen riding a tiger. Since ancient times, the tiger has been considered a symbol of power and majesty. Due to strength, agility and immense power, the tiger has got the status of the national animal of India. Tigers were hunted indiscriminately during the British Raj, resulting in a sharp decline in their numbers. After independence, the focus was on increasing their numbers. Tiger Project started in 1973, many tiger reserves were established. Soon promising results began to appear. At present, about 75% of the world’s tigers are found in India. The tiger is a powerful icon of India’s cultural and natural heritage, and its survival has been a top priority for WWF-India since it was founded.

During the British period, a great hunter named Jim Corbett also did a lot of work on the conservation of tigers. A great hunter and protector ? It will sound a bit strange but it is the truth. Jim Corbett had hunted only man-eating tigers and leopards in his life. A tiger reserve has been named Jim Corbett National Park in his honour. Jim Corbett has also written some great books on man-eating tigers and their terror. Man -Eaters of Kumaou is one such book. The tiger is also a very shy animal, so there is very limited literature available on them. Those who are interested in tigers, rural life of Uttarakhand, ancient temples must read this book

Eight chapters of Varanasi that everyone must read.

GANGA MAIYA KI JAI

Born here of parents born here from parents the same, and their parents the same—-Walt Whitman.

SUBAH -E-BANARAS (MORNING IN VARANASI)

“Benares(Varanasi) is older than history, older than tradition, older even than  legend and looks twice as old as all of them put together “ MARK TWAIN.

So much has been written about Varanasi that to write anything one has to repeat the facts. In simple words, on the basis of my experience, I can say that one should try to understand Varanasi like a simple poetry. A poetry that has been present in its natural form in every period of time. If you have the patience to read poetry (information on internet has exhausted patience) if you have the passion to peep into history, then Banaras is the best. You may say that Varanasi is like onion – like onion has many folds, in the same way if we consider Varanasi city as onion, then there are many layers of history, it can be experienced with a little patience. The beginning of human civilization, the struggle against imperialism, or the present day, everything can be seen in Varanasi. Just a little ability to smell history, or a little fondness to feel history, Banaras is an unforgettable experience.

Go to Benares or Kashi, that most ancient of cities, and give ear to her murmuring. Does she not tell you of her immemorial past-of how she has gone on while empires have decayed, of Buddha who came to her with his new gospel, of the millions who have gone to her through the ages to find peace and solace? Old and hoary, decrepit, dirty, smelly, and yet much alive and full of the strength of ages, is Benares. Full of charm and wonder is Kashi, for in her eyes you can see the past of India, and in the murmur of her waters you can hear the voices of ages long gone by.

HOLY DIP (SUBAH -E-BANARAS(VARANASI)

HOLY DIP

“I think Banaras(KASHI,VARANASI) is one of the most wonderful places I have ever seen. It it has struck me that a westerner feels in Banaras very much as an oriental must feel while he is planted down in the middle of London”. (MARK TWAIN)

Holy Dip:- All the ancient cities of India are situated on the banks of rivers. This is because of the ease of transportation. Varanasi is no exception to this. The city of Varanasi is situated on the bank of the holy Ganges. There is a very ancient tradition of bathing in the Ganges river in the city of Varanasi. This tradition of getting up early in the morning and bathing in the Ganges continues even today. The day of an ordinary citizen of Banaras(BANARSI) begins with bathing in the Ganges. Hindus from all over the world come to Varanasi to take a holy dip in the Ganges. After taking a holy dip in the Ganges, the Ganges water is offered to Lord Shiva in temples. It feels amazing to be a part of this thousands of years old tradition. Hindus also have a tradition of burning the dead body . After burning the dead body, the ashes are flown into the holy rivers. Hindus from all corners of the world come to Varanasi to immerse the ashes of their beloved in the Ganges. In Hinduism, kindness to living beings is of great importance. After a holy bath in the Ganges, giving food to birds, monkeys, cows, dogs, is a common practice. There are also many Akhadas (Gymnasium) on the banks of the Ganges. Many youths go to these Akhadas to do exercise after taking a holy dip in the Ganges. You can understand what are the thoughts of the Indian people on any subject by simply visiting Varanasi, in other words it is a good place to feel the pulse of India. So much diversity and similarity is rarely seen anywhere else. Other than Varanasi, such a view can also be seen in Mahakumbh, but Mahakumbh holy bath is organized once in twelve years. For me, taking a holy dip in the Ganges has always been about feeling connected to my ancestors. I am only a link in the journey of life since eternity. The ashes of ancestors are contained in the Ganges. An inexhaustible link – from the past to the future, in the present I am part of this link. Sadhu, Sanyasi, Grihasta, old , young , woman, man, White, Brown South-Indian, Punjabi, Rajasthani, Bengali all at one place. What to say about the difference in language and clothing? A mini version of the country, and a wonderful experience.

There are about eighty-four ghats in Varanasi. Each has its own importance and history. The stairs of the ghat made of sandstone, every building is a completely different feeling. If one is not a native of Varanasi then it will be a very strange experience. Sandal paste on the forehead after the holy bath, Roli’s tika makes the bathing process complete. There is nothing to worry about the means of transportation in the morning. Means of transport are available in the morning from any corner of the city. Varanasi city wakes up in the morning. If you start the day with a cup of tea, or do yoga in the morning, then the experience is even better. There are many tea shops on the Ghat. Foreigners can also be seen doing yoga on the Ghats.

The marvelous beauty of the Ghats by boating


Boating

I love the area where the holy river Ganges flows in Varanasi. (SHIV Matsya Purana)

A panoramic view of the Ghats of Varanasi can be seen from a boat. The Ghats of Varanasi are like a painting on a huge canvas, in which time has filled innumerable colors. Boating is the only way to experience this huge painting and the colors of the times. By the way, for the best experience, one should travel from Assi Ghat to RajGhat. Boats are accessible at every Ghat. The boatmen have a general knowledge of the history of the Ghat, the most fun is to hear the stories related to the Ghats from these boatmen. In these stories, history, imagination, experiences passed down from generations, the art of telling stories that are now fading away can be seen. Google does not give information every time .If a particular jetty is preferred, these boatmen also stop the boat on the shore for a while at that Ghat on request. Many religious rituals of Hindus are also performed by boatmen, for this reason they also have good knowledge of religious customs. If someone knows how to row a boat, then by requesting them, he can row the boat himself. By the way, how hard or how easy it is to row a boat, everyone should row the boat at least five minutes to understand this. . Smaller boats are fine for one or two people, larger boats for a group. Boats are available for hire on time. If you want to listen to the sound of water with peace, and get acquainted with history, then a small boat is better. A bigger boat is better if you want to be a part of the enthusiasm of an energetic religious crowd. If you have time, try to be a part of both. Although rowing can be done at any time, but early morning is the best time.

GHAT

Going from one Ghat to another is like entering from one time block to another.

The city illumines the truth and reveals reality. It does not bring new wonders into the scope of vision, but enables one to see what is already there. Where this eternal light intersects the earth, it is known as Kashi”(Varanasi). (Diana L. Eck)

Just like the aroma of a delicious dish, Its color increases the desire to taste that dish manifold, but can never give the taste of that dish. The only way to taste the food is to taste it. Same is the case with the Ghats of Varanasi, The beauty of the Ghats of Varanasi can be seen by boating, but to feel it from the heart, it is necessary to spend time at the Ghat. Each Ghat is like a page of history, and the history of India passes through Banaras itself. All Ghats in Varanasi have their own importance, and it is not possible to write all about them here. For a bit more information, I would like to mention something here based on my experience.

ASSI GHAT :-Spiritual Paradise or Spiritual Disneyland ?

Assi Ghat:- According to mythological legends, the city got its name due to its settlement in the middle of rivers named Varuna and Assi. For this reason the city is known as Varanasi. At present Assi Ghat is very famous among foreigners. There are many exotic cuisine restaurants around the Ghat. All types of restaurants can be found here Italian, Spanish, French. Large numbers of foreigners visit Assi Ghat sometimes to feel the transformation of Assi Ghat into a Spiritual Disneyland . (I came to know this word from a French woman, she is very much influenced by Hindu religion and culture and has been living here for thirty years. She was angry with the present generation, both Indian and foreigners. She believes that the present generation is adopting yoga and spirituality as a fashion, as a fun, without being familiar with its basic meaning. By the way, every old generation generally has such complaints from the new generation.


VARANASI CITY OF SHIVA AND RAM

Tulsi Ghat: The culture of India cannot be imagined without Ram. Ramcharit Manas was composed by Tulsi Das on this Ghat. This was the composition of Tulsidas ji in the vernacular language of the Hindu religious text Ramayana. This was the time when the temples of Varanasi were being demolished by the Muslim imperialists, invaders. In order to instill confidence in the defeated Hindus again, Tulsidas started (RAMLEELA) based on the life of the most sacred character of the Hindus – Ram. Soon this RAMLEELA became popular . (Ramlila had an incomparable contribution in preserving the traditions and culture of Hinduism)Even today. It was Tulsi Das ji’s unique talent that after the destruction of Hindu temples, he converted every Hindu heart into a Hindu temple. There is no village or city in the whole India, especially in North India, where Ramlila is not staged during Dussehra. Tulsidas ji died here in 1623. The items used by Tulsi Das in his life are also stored here. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2019/10/07/islamic-imperialism-breaking-of-idols-hindu-struggle-past-present/

RAJA RAMCHANDRA KI JAI

The whole earth is the Sepulchre of famous men. They are Honoured not only by columns and inscriptions in their own land, but in foreign nations on memorials graven not on stone but in the hearts and minds of men .Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, 404 BCE.

SHIVALA BHAVAN NOW KNOWN AS CHET SINGH OR CHAIT SINGH GHAT

Chet Singh Ghat

The history which could have been written on 15th august 1781 was then written years later on 15th august 1947.

SHIVALA BHAVAN NOW KNOWN AS CHET SINGH OR CHAIT SINGH GHAT On the banks of the Ganges, Shivala Bhavan, now known as Chet Singh Ghat, the Maharaja of Benares was arrested and detained here by order of Warren Hastings. The disobedience of Maharaj by the soldiers of Warren Hastings provoked the soldiers of Maharaj’s army and then the people also joined the soldiers of Maharaj. The “Benares Rebellion” could not leave a significant mark in its history due to lack of vision and inability to take decisions in the King of Banares. In order to shed light on this incident and its importance, I have made the basis of the letters of The British officers of that time, their statements, Buildings and ruins connected with this incident in and around Benares. Sampurna Nand He were a great educationist and was also the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and the Governor of Rajasthan. (His great-grandfather Sadanand ji was the divan of King Chet Singh.)

“If Chet Singh had not run away at this time and would have attacked the garden of Madhodas, I would surely have been killed and thus rebellion would have spread all around”. Warren Hasting.

By the way, India’s first war of independence is considered to be 1857, and history does not give any place to it if it happens. But why the Varanasi Raja of Chet Singh Ghat and the East India Company struggle could not become a freedom struggle? This has definitely become a bitter lesson in history. This ghat is a witness to this even today that if the leadership becomes unconscious, then the public should take a decision with their own conscience. For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2020/08/14/benares-rebellion-15august-1781/

RAJA HARISHCHANDRA STORY

Sita is typical of India— the idealized India. The question is not whether she ever lived, whether the story is history or not, we know that the ideal is there.

HARISHCHANDRA GHAT :- There are two ghats in Varanasi for the cremation of dead persons. Harishchandra and Manikarnika. Both the very ancient Ghats have their own importance. According to the Hindu scriptures, King Harishchandra was the ancestor of Lord Rama. This place was named Harishchandra after his name. There is hardly any other such story of truth, sacrifice and patience than this one mentioned below.

Harishchandra was the king of Ayodhya. Once Harishchandra saw a dream while he was sleeping that he has donated his kingdom to a sage Vishwamitra. Later the king forgot about this dream, after a few days Vishwamitra came to the king’s court and reminded the king about his dream. The king is always a symbol of justice. Harishchandra had a strong belief that the king should always set an exemplary example before the subjects, so he immediately left the kingdom, and gave the entire kingdom to the sage Vishwamitra. But Vishwamitra was not pleased even by this. And demanded Gurudakshina from the king. There was nothing left to give to the helpless king, he asked Vishwamitra for some time, and left his kingdom with his wife and son and went to Kashi. Here Harishchandra did not get work anywhere, as a result the king got the job of an assistant helping in the cremation of dead persons in a shamsan. The king’s wife started working as a maidservant with a moneylender. Once the king’s son Rohitasva was bitten by a snake, due to which he died. The queen took the body of her son and came to Shamasan Ghat for the last funeral. The husband of the queen( Harishchandra ) , who was working as an assistant in the funeral rites of the dead at the shamsan ghat, was deeply saddened to see the death of his son and the condition of the queen, but demanded the tax that was levied on burning the dead body. The queen said that I had nothing to pay in the form of tax, on which the king said that “He cannot allow the body to be burnt without tax, because it will violate the orders of their master”. The king told the queen that she should tear off a part of the sari she was wearing and pay it as tax. The poor queen had no other option, as a result, she tore the sari from the edge and wanted to pay the tax to the king. Suddenly sage Vishwamitra appeared.
Sage Vishwamitra returned life to the king’s son Rohitashva. The sage told King Harishchandra that he wanted to see to what extent the king was successful in following the truth. While returning the king’s kingdom, he called him a Godlike king.
This story inspired many people. Referring to a incident in his biography( The story of my experiments with truth) Mahatma Gandhi has told that in childhood, the story of King Harishchandra left an indelible impression on him, according to Mahatma Gandhi, he used to get emotional after remembering this story.

Dashashwamedh:- is also one of the most famous Ghats of Varanasi. It is estimated that in the second century AD, the famous Bhavashiva kings defeated the Kushanas and after performing Ten Ashvamedha sacrifices, took a bath here, due to which it was named Dashashvamedha. For some years, a grand ceremony of Ganga Aarti is organized here, in recent times a huge crowd gathers to see this aarti. Aarti of Dashaswamedh in the evening at the Ghats is the main attraction of Varanasi.
The electrification of the ghats at night gives a mesmerizing view, the beauty of the ghats, and the aartis are a sight to behold. It is my belief that there is a different fun in visiting the Ghat in the evening and at night, but the soul of Varanasi can be felt only in the morning.

THE LAST VOYAGE BENARES (VARANASI)
LAST JOURNEY (1883)
Edwin Lord American painter,
known for his paintings on eastern countries. A dead man is being taken by boat to Manikarnika for the last rites. In my opinion this is the best painting of Manikarnika ghat that was ever made, amazing color coordination, no effect of time, as if it is not a painting but a live telecast of Manikarnika on television. Wonderful. Even today a hand driven fan made of palm leaves is found in every house of Varanasi.
There has been no change in Manikarnika Ghat and the surrounding buildings even today. Even today in Varanasi similar clothes of sadhus, sacred saffron color of Hindus, boats are the hallmark of the Ghats of Banaras, even today these umbrellas (CANOPY) CHATRI(bamboo and palm leaf umbrella
) are used in the same way. everything still exists today.

CANOPY, CHATRI(bamboo and palm leaf umbrella)

MANIKARNIKA :- Undoubtedly Manikarnika is the greatest Samasan . It is believed that once Shiva and Parvati came here to bath. After taking a bath, Mata Parvati came to know that while taking bath, her earrings(karnphool) have fallen here, since then the place was named Manikarnika. This place has been considered very sacred among the Hindus.
Lakshmibai, (RANI OF JHANSI .INDIA’S WARRIOR QUEEN) born in Varanasi, was named Manikarnika after this place. (Her nick name was Manu for the same reason) . It is very difficult to predict when the practice of burning bodies on Manikarnika started. It is believed that the burning of dead bodies never stops here. Burning of dead bodies has continued here for thousands of years. In Hinduism, birth and death are considered to be a cycle of life, for this reason there is such a belief about Manikarnika that —- here, the stopping of dead cremation for any reason is a sign of destruction of creation. The death of the person born is certain, this is the absolute truth. Death as a celebration – the same philosophy is hidden in the Holi of Masan. Death is seen as a celebration in Manikarnika. For detailed information on this topic please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2021/03/26/rangbhari-ekadsi-masan-holiashes-of-dead-persons/

A woman selling vegetables in the street leading to the Ghat

PANCH -GANGA GHAT (BINDU MADHAV)

PANCH GANGA GHAT :-

Schools should introduce one more, very important, subject- The History of labor, the brilliant and tragic history of man’s struggle with the natural world, the history of his discoveries and inventions, his victories and triumphs over the forces of nature.” And a little later he wrote: “I believe very strongly in miracles made by the intelligence and imagination of man; I know no other miracles.” (MAXIM GORKY)

Panch-Ganga is among the five major and oldest Ghats of Varanasi. Hindus believe that Panch-Ganga Ghat is situated at the confluence of five holy rivers.

(YATHA, KIRNA, DHUTPAPA, SARASWATI, GANGA & YAMUNA) There was also a custom of drinking Ganges water here by the newly married couple after marriage. This is like a European practice of drinking hypocross, or musket. Its ancient name was Bindumadhav Ghat. This Ghat got its name from the ancient temple of Bindumadhav (Lord Vishnu). In the seventeenth century, this ancient temple was demolished by the Islamic ruler Aurangzeb, and a mosque was built from the rubble of that ancient temple. Since then the name of this place became Panch Ganga in place of Bindumadhav.With the tradition of bathing in the holy river on special occasions, and with such small habits, did our ancestors manage to save their religion! Could we save our religion only with the help of our culture! Who were those people who not only kept their traditions alive even after the destruction of their temples, idols of Gods but also defeated foreign invaders? For more information about this subject please visit :- https://nithinks.com/2021/01/18/makar-sankranti-is-an-ancient-hindu-festival-or-the-burden-of-old-tradition/

He purged by his sword the land of Hind from the filth of infidelity… and the impurity of idol-worship, and left not one temple standing… When he arrived at Mirat [Meerut] all the idol temples were converted into mosques. He then marched and encamped under the fort of Delhi. The city and its vicinity were freed from idols and idol-worship, and in the sanctuaries, mosques were raised by the worshippers of one God. The royal army proceeded towards Benares,(Varanasi) which is the centre of the country of Hind, and here they destroyed nearly one thousand temples. (Sadruddin Muhammad Hasan Nizami)

RAJ GHAT :-The crossroad of history (meeting center of different periods)

RAJ GHAT:- Almost all the great historians are of the opinion that ancient Varanasi city was near Rajghat. Near Rajghat, the Varuna River meets with the Ganges River, due to this river, the city got its name Varanasi. And in ancient times This river got its name due to the Varan (a species of trees) The river Varanavati is mentioned in the Atharva Veda.( period:-1000-900BCE) . Many historians, archaeologists have estimated from the material obtained from the excavation of Rajghat that the ancient Varanasi city existed in 11th or 12 century BC. At present there is also an important bridge built during the British era, at present it is known as Malviya bridge . During British rule it was called Dufferin Bridge. Built over the Ganges on the Grand Trunk Road from Dhaka to Peshawar. This route is the oldest and longest-distance route in South Asia. In ancient times it was known as Uttar Marg, Sadak -e -Azam Road in Mughal era, and Grand Trunk Road in British period. About one kilometer from the Rajghat bridge is the confluence of the Varuna and Ganga rivers. From Rajghat towards Varuna-Ganga Sangam one has to go through the educational institutions of Krishnamurti Foundation. This is a beautiful road. Magnificent buildings of educational institutions and covered with giant trees. The area of ​​confluence comes as soon as the chain of educational institutions and giant trees ends. The entire area covered by trees in this area gives a magical feel. If you leave the slopes of the Sangam and go straight, you will have to cross a small culvert and meet another historical ancient route — Panchkoshi Marg. The confluence of holy rivers is always considered a sacred place in Hinduism. The oldest temples of Hindus are built at the confluence of such rivers. There is also an ancient temple here which is known as Adikeshav. It is difficult to say when this temple came into existence.

ADIKESHAV

The temple is mentioned in the copper plates of the Gahadavalas who ruled Varanasi from the eighth to the eleventh century. Similarly, at the holy confluence of Ganga-Gomti, there is an ancient temple of Markandeya Mahadev in Varanasi. The mention of this temple is also found in the holy book of Hindus Mahabharata. For more information about this subject please visit :-https://nithinks.com/2021/03/14/mahashivratrishiv-barat-and-varanasi/ When the Adi Keshav temple would have been built can only be predicted. All the major temples of Banaras were demolished in 1193-1194. Paganism is a crime in Islam. Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khan got the right to demolish and plunder the worship house of Hindus, Buddhists from the Gangetic plain, he accomplished this with complete cruelty. This temple was rebuilt in 1807 by Sindhia of Gwalior. Now there is a sense of reverence in this holy temple but nothing is left from the point of view of art. No tyrant can take away the feeling of faith. For more information about this subject please visit :-https://nithinks.com/2021/03/10/dawn-of-civilization-and-shiva-shiva-ganga-varanasi/ Assi Ghat presents a global image, of a changing India, or of the globalization of the world. Tulsi Das, Benimadhav, and Adi Keshav are witnesses to the struggle of Hindus against imperialism, Chet Singh Ghat is a living example of the importance of leadership, while Dashaswamedh, Harishchandra, and Manikarnika are living symbols of Hindu values ​​for thousands of years.