History of Hindu struggle and attainment of Shivling.

The Hindu side claims that the old Shiva linga was found from the sanctum sanctorum of the temple. In the drawing of James Prinsep, this part of the temple is depicted as Mahadev. In this article, I have written in detail on this topic below.


VISHWANATH TEMPLE OF BANARAS OR VISHVESHVAR TEMPLE is a major reason for the religious struggle that has been going on for centuries between Hindus and Muslims.
The army of Muhammad Ghori and Qutbuddin Aibak defeated the king of Banaras a prominent North Indian king of that period ~ Jaichand. According to Islamic belief, no other religion can be practiced under Islamic rule. Idol worship is a crime in Islam and Banaras was the center of idol-worshipping of Hindus for thousands of years.

As a result, all the major Hindu temples of Banaras were demolished and their property was looted by the Muslims.

Some major Hindu temples were demolished and mosques were built at that same place from their rubble. Surprisingly some of the temples which were demolished in 1194 and were converted into mosques, still survive in Banaras though only their leftover remains can be found. For more information about this subject please visit:- https://nithinks.com/2021/12/06/the-search-for-hindus-lost-temples-in-the-city-of-templesvaranasi/

AS SHARIAT LAWS WERE IMPOSED IN THE CITY the pity-minded Hindu kings of India began to express their loyalty to it. The rule of Banaras was handed over to an Amir (Governer) so that he could suppress paganism and yet satisfy people with his justice. (Justice here refers to Sharia Law)

IBN AL- ATHIR, a Muslim chronicler wrote that after plundering the city of Banaras, the loot was loaded in 1400 camels and sent to Ghazni.


Soon Banaras recovered from this setback and the Hindus tried to take their temples back. And a BLOODY STRUGGLE BEGAN. The Vindhya hills around Banaras were a great place for guerilla warfare.

According to some Afghan Islamic scholars and Islamic historians, about one lakh fifty thousand Muslims were killed in this conflict by the Hindus.

This anarchy ended only when Islamic rulers accepted religious freedom to Hindus in this way the process of demolishing the temple and rebuilding it continued……………….

Some of the major events during this period

A- IN 1194, ALMOST ALL THE MAJOR TEMPLES OF BANARAS WERE DEMOLISHED. The Vishwanath temple would have been demolished for the first time during this period.

B- PADMASADHU, a monk, built the temple of PADMESHWAR in Varanasi in 1296 AD in front of Vishwanath temple in Banaras. This shows that the Vishwanath temple existed at that time, so the Vishwanath temple must have been rebuilt between 1194 AD and 1296 AD.(Fuhrer Sharqi Architecture of Jaunpur )

C- In 1447, the Vishwanath temple was demolished again by Sultan Mahmud Shah of Jaunpur.

D-During the reign of Akbar, with the help of minister RAJA TODARMAL, NARAYAN BHATT once again constructed the Vishwanath temple around 1585 AD.

E- On 18 April 1669, Aurangzeb issued a decree ordering the destruction of the Kashi Vishwanath temple. This decree document is still safely preserved in the Asiatic Society Kolkata.

F- The construction of the temple was once again completed between 1777 AD and 1780 AD by MAHARANI AHILYABAI of Indore.


Khalifa-tul Ard, that is, he has been called upon to play the role of being a successor to earth. The earth has its own potentialities. It, too, has been created for a purpose. But man has been sent down as a responsible being and he is here to secure improvement of earth, of making this brown earth of God green. He is here to introduce order and reform, in the light of Heavenly mandate, what has been deformed by Satanic forces.

Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (Aurangzeb)

Aurangzeb was a staunch Sunni Muslim. Unlike his ancestor Akbar, he was not at all an advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity, nor was he in the mood to give any concession to the Hindus, also unlike Jahangir, he was not at all interested in any kind of building and construction work of gardens, minarets, buildings etc.

Shah Jahan followed Sharia law. Under the guise of this, he tried to break the Vishwanath temple in Banaras, but due to the strong opposition of the Hindus, his army could not break the Vishwanath temple, but then also 63 temples were destroyed in Benares during the reign of Shah Jahan. As a true Muslim, the expansion of Islam was the main goal of Aurangzeb’s life, he resolved to do the unfinished work of his father.

Aurangzeb probably wanted to make all the Muslims of the world as well as the Hindus feel the superiority of Muslim religion over other religions. Soon the Sharia laws were re-imposed on Banaras. Under the Sharia law-:

a. Jizya tax was imposed on Hindus.
b. All Hindu schools were closed.
c. The name of Banaras was changed to Muhammadabad.
d. The Vishwanath temple of Banaras and some other famous temples were demolished.

Saqi Mustad Khan has written extensively on this subject in Maasir-I- Alamgiri.

Demolition of Vishwanath Temple in Banaras

(18th April,1669) , it reached the ear of His Majesty, the protector of the faith, that in the provinces of Thatta, Multan, and Benares, but especially in the latter, foolish Brahmans were in the habit of expounding frivolous books in their schools, and that students and learners, Musulmans as well as Hindus, went there, even from long distances, led by a desire to become acquainted with the wicked sciences they taught. The “Director of the Faith’’ consequently issued orders to all the governors of provinces to destroy with a willing hand the schools and temples of the infidels ; and they were strictly enjoined to put an entire stop to the teaching and practicing of idolatrous forms of worship. On the 15th i Rabi’u-l akhir it was reported to his religious Majesty, leader of the Unitarians, that, in obedience to order, the Government officers had destroyed the temple of Bishnath at Benares.

The Presently disputed mosque. I have deliberately selected the black and white images so that the walls of the old temple which are currently being painted with lime are clearly visible.

Aurangzeb also wanted to break the order of Hindus repeatedly taking back their temples, To carry out his plan, Aurangzeb took some cruel decisions and implemented them.

  1. As per the orders of Aurangzeb, the Vishwanath temple in Banaras was demolished, the sanctum sanctorum (the holiest part of the temple where the idol of God is installed) was also demolished and leveled and a mosque was constructed at the same place from its rubble.

2. After the construction of the mosque on the main part of the temple, a Islamic graveyard was also constructed in the courtyard of the temple. It can be clearly seen in the drawing of James Princip. Generally, in Hindu belief, temples are never built at such a place where the rituals related to the dead person have been completed. In future, Hindus cannot build any temple at this holy place, undoubtedly this must have been the intention behind the construction of this graveyard.

3. Aurangzeb’s intention was not only to destroy the most sacred temple of Hindus, but he also wanted to humiliate Hindus forever. For this a part of the temple was deliberately left out so that the Hindus always felt inferior, and the feeling of a conqueror remained among the Muslims.

The wall of the ancient temple is clearly depicted in the book Benares illustrated, in a series of drawings written by James Prinsep, published in 1833.

This can be better understood from James Prinsep’s drawings. In the temple courtyard, the place where the mosque was built is shown point-wise. This place is still in the possession of Muslims due to the construction of the mosque.


After Aurangzeb’s death, the Mughal Dynasty got weakened due to struggles for inheritance of the throne, several governors proclaiming themselves independent rulers, and most importantly the Marathas and Sikhs challenging the Mughal Empire. The politics of India in the eighteenth century was very similar to the politics of the seventeenth century in Germany. The old dynasties were subsiding and the struggle for the throne to fill their place was at its peak. Soon Banaras overcome the shock it got from Aurungzeb’s side and the Hindu Maratha rulers came to dominate Banaras.

Maratha’s also got the Mughal rulers of that time to write an assurance to compensate for the destruction of the Vishwanath temple by Aurangzeb in Banaras.

Malla Rao thought of demolishing the Gyanvapi mosque and building a temple on it, but due to the dilemma of the Pandits of Banaras, this work was postponed. Because of the struggle to inherit the throne in the country, the Marathas couldn’t even pay much attention to it.

In 1781, the East India Company’s dominance over Banaras was established. The East India Company’s effort was to avoid Hindu-Muslim conflict as much as possible. In the year 1777-80, the temple was rebuilt again by the Maharani Devi Ahilyabai Holkar of Indore. The disputed site (the mosque built by Aurangzeb was left intact) still remains in the same condition presently.

In 1809, a Hindu-Muslim riot had also taken place over the Vishwanath temple, which got controlled with great difficulty, hundreds of people died in this riot.

Mr. Watson, the Magistrate of Banaras at that time wanted an end to this quarrel and therefore requested the officers of the Company to HANDOVER THIS PLACE TO HINDUS.

Unfortunately, doing this was not possible in the future due to the complex political conditions of India in those days. Later, learning from the revolution of 1857, the British focused on maintaining the status quo in the Hindu-Muslim religious dispute, due to which the Vishwanath temple dispute still continued.

The area inside the red boundary in this picture is still occupied by the mosque. This is the reason for the present Hindu-Muslim tension. The present courtyard of Kashi Vishwanath temple has been expanded. It has been expanded from three thousand square feet to five lakh square feet, but the disputed structure of the mosque remains the same.


A. Hindu artworks on the walls, and statues of some Hindu Gods and Goddesses have been found in the survey of the mosque.

B. A dome of the mosque rests on the top of the temple.

The place indicated by the arrow is the sacred pond described by James Prinsep. Presently, Muslims use this pond for Wuzu. Wuzu is an Islamic process.

C. In the survey, a small pond was found in the mosque’s courtyard, and a Shivling was also found inside the pond. This is not at all a fact of utter surprise because James Prinsep has described this pond very clearly in his book ‘Benares Illustrated in a Series of Drawings’.

The principal lingam of Mahadeo stood in an ornamented reservoir in the centre,(center) having a drain below to carry off the Ganges water continually poured over it by day and night. Mundip signifies vestibule: Dundpan and Dwarpal are respectively the staff-bearer and door-keeper. The latter situation is held by Kal Bhyro, the offspring of Shiva’s rage; the former appointment was conferred upon Hurikeshu, a Yukshu, or one of the attendants upon the Deity of riches, in reward for his having abandoned the sports of youth to devote himself to ascetic meditation at Kashi. Tarakeswur and Manikeswur are two inferior lingums of Shiva.

To a large extent, it is possible that this is the holy pond of the Hindus as described by James. Presently, Muslims use this pond for Wuzu. Wuzu is an Islamic process. Cleaning the body before offering Namaz includes washing hands, mouth, head, feet, and inner part of the nose. I think a few more ancient mysteries can be uncovered by examining this holy pond.

One thing is clear the scientific analysis of the ancient Vishwanath temple done by James in 1831 is still unmatched. There is no difference between the conclusion of James and the condition of the Vishwanath temple today.


“Doublethink means the power of holding two contradictory beliefs in one’s mind simultaneously, and accepting both of them.”

With the independence of India, India got a new constitution and there was also hope of a solution to this issue. After independence, instead of handing over their holy place to Hindus through a new law, the Congress party made it more controversial. Nehru, who believed in the communist ideology, felt that Hindu political parties could take advantage of this problem in elections, so it would be right to keep the temple-mosque dispute entangled in the cumbersome court proceedings. According to a section of the law, the status quo before 15 August 1947 in a religious dispute shall be maintained. It was the political compulsion of Nehru and Congress to maintain the Hindu-Muslim dispute over Vishwanath temple otherwise it might have got resolved years before.

Presently, this disputed mosque near Vishwanath temple is a living example of Islamic imperialism. Hardly any Muslim goes to this mosque to offer prayers, but this disputed temple definitely knocks the eyes of every Hindu. Most of the foreign travel writers who have visited this place in the sixteenth century and after believed that THIS PLACE SHOULD BE HANDED OVER TO THE HINDUS. These foreign travel writers have explained their side in detail in their writing. Any person who looks at this disputed mosque objectively rather than from a religious point of view will come to the conclusion that no doubt this place should be handed over to the Hindus. After all it was built by demolishing their ancient temple.

Makar Sankranti is an ancient Hindu festival or The burden of old tradition?

A Knowledge of History, even of the darkest past, can be quite useful, even for the future. (Anatoly Markusha, Miracles on wheels)

Makar Sankranti is a festival that is celebrated in different ways throughout India. Basically, it is a harvest festival. The variety found in food and drink across India, likewise, is also found in this festival. In another sense, it is a good example of unity in diversity.

This festival is known as Lohri in Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh, Khichdi in North India, Pongal in Tamil Nadu, Makar Sankranti in West Bengal, Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Orissa Sankranti, in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. Sankranti Foods made with jaggery, lai (Food made by roasting paddy, millet, etc. Lava.) chuda (Flattened rice,) sesame, etc. are consumed in this festival. Currently, the tradition of flying kites is also a part of this festival.

The oldest form of Makar Sankranti: –

Makar Sankranti is a festival of happiness with the arrival of a new crop, with the end of winter, and the sun enters Capricorn. According to Hindu beliefs, Sun (Surya) is the only visible God, and this festival is dedicated to him. Taking a bath in holy rivers on Makar Sankranti is a tradition to pay reverence to the sun.

Banaras(Varanasi): – Because Varanasi is the city where the entire Indianess is seen. If a tableau of the whole of India is to be taken in a limited place, it is possible only in Varanasi, and perhaps this is why Hindus have so much attraction towards Varanasi. For more information about , Benares(Varanasi,Kashi) please visit:- http://nithinks.com/2020/12/01/dev-deepawali-festival-of-light-city-of-light/

This time, Makar Sankranti is also special. A full year has passed in the outbreak of coronavirus, the arrival of the New Year, two days later the corona vaccine will be available to the general public.

 Thousands of years of tradition and present:

 The struggle of a common man in the rapidly changing circumstances of the country and the world, the engagement of information technology with the general public, the apprehension of the people towards the future, the thinking of farmers towards the on-going farmer movement in the country, the thinking of farmers on the government’s attitude To answer all the questions, I found the festival of Makarsankranti in Banaras to be the most appropriate.

 Apart from this, one thing was bothering me for many days. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of the country wrote in his book Glimpses of World History about Makarsankranti —- 


“I sat reading; the calm of the early morning was broken by distant voices and rumblings, ever-growing stronger. I remember that it was the Sankranti day, the first big day of the Magh Mela, and the pilgrims were marching in their thousands for their morning dip at the Sangam, where the Ganga meets the Jumna and the invisible Saraswati is also supposed to join them. And as they marched they sang and sometimes cheered mother Ganga—- Ganga Mai ki Jai—- and their voices reached me over the walls of Naini Prison. As I listened to them I thought of the power of faith which drew these vast numbers to the river and made them forget for a while their poverty and misery. And I thought how year after year, for how many hundreds or thousands of years, the pilgrims had march to the Triveni. Men may come and men may go and governments and empires may lord it awhile and then disappear into the past, but the old tradition continues and generation after generation bows down to it. Tradition has much of good in it, but sometimes it becomes a terrible burden, which makes it difficult for us to move forward. It is fascinating to think of the unbroken chain which connects us with the dim and distant past, to read accounts of these melas written 1300 years ago—- and the mela was an old tradition even then. But this change has a way of clinging on to us when we want to move on, and of making us almost prisoners in the grip of this tradition. We shall have to keep many of the links with our past, but we shall also have to break through the prison of tradition wherever it prevents us from our onward march.”

Was Nehru’s statement a scientific thought? Did Communist, Marxist have a fancy attitude towards religion? Did Nehru have any faith in Gandhi’s Ramrajya? Could anyone who believed in Gandhi’s Ramrajya use such language for a Hindu festival? Was this Nehru’s vision?

Why was Nehru so deeply intolerant of Hinduism as deeply sympathetic to the Red Terrorists? (communists)


Nehru’s views towards Lenin in Glimpses of World History- “The year you were born in —-1917 —was one of the memorable years of history when a great leader, with a heart full of love and sympathy for the poor and suffering, made his people write a noble and never –to-be-forgotten chapter of history. In the very month in which you were born, Lenin started the great revolution which has changed the face of Russia and Siberia.” 

With the rise of nationalism in the present, the Nehru ideology being weak and meaningless, making an effort to understand the future, I also decided to participate in this festival.

Holy deep:-

I reached Rajghat at about 4 a.m in the morning before dawn. First of all, I went to a small tea shop, got my attention to the Stone plate near the shop.

The name of the great poet Rabindranath Thakur was written on this stone plate and the route connecting the main road to Rajghat is named after him. I was listening to people while sipping tea at the tea shop. The topic of their discussion was based on the drainage system built by James Prinsep in Varanasi. One of these people introduced himself as Ashutosh Kumar Yadav, after taking some valuable information on this subject and thanking him, I moved towards the ghat.

There were some small shops close to the ghat, which were selling toys for children, beauty articles for women, some girls were selling flowers, lamps (Diya) some poor, beggars were also seen, There is also the practice of charity after a holy bath in Makarsankranti festival, so after talking to the people there, it came to know that many beggars have gathered from the surrounding areas in the hope of donation there. There was not much crowd at the ghat, after looking carefully for a long time; I realized that the crowd that came to take a holy bath of Makarsankranti can be divided mainly into some category. The maximum number of people were from the nearby rural areas, these people mostly came by bus, then the people who lived near the river banks, the youngest boys, the girls showed the most enthusiasm, this enthusiasm was natural given their age .the challenge of bathing in cold, icy water had become an encouraging atmosphere. Some saints – monks also appeared, very calm, solemn, some aged for whom this festival was a chance to relive the old, pleasant days when they were children, and come with their guardians, Some of the police force also appeared ready to help with promptness, after a short walk, I decided to move towards the next ghat.

It was still dark, most of the ghats were still silent, the corona effect could not be ruled out, I slowly moved forward, on a ghat I suddenly heard my favorite song ringing in a low voice, It was great to hear this song on this special occasion. मानो तो मैं गंगा माँ हूँ ,न मानो , तो बहता पानी . if you have faith I am mother Ganga, without faith just flowing water.

This song is written by the famous poet of Varanasi, Anjaan . Going near, a young man was playing this song on his mobile phone in a slow voice and giving food to some street dogs, while sitting on a bench, I heard the whole song. Walking further, I saw many people feeding food to different animals in many places. In Hinduism, giving food to the needy is considered to be the most sacred duty, even if it is an animal. Later on, I saw many people, some feeding birds, some monkeys; some unclaimed dogs Due to the outbreak of Corona, when all the industries were closed down, free food grains and money were being given by the government to the people living below the poverty line.


Then how much people must have been helped by these habits! It seems to me that even now people may not have needed personal help; such habits must have been of great importance in fighting famines and epidemics. Perhaps to fight the epidemics, famines, society must have gradually developed such a system with the participation of the people.

 Struggling with many thoughts, I reached the Gaay Ghat. After Rajghat, some crowd appeared here, a small temple was built on the banks of the river, after taking bath, and devotees were offering Ganga water to the idol of Lord Shiva in the temple. 

Some youngsters were taking mobile selfies while bathing in icy water, some were also doing some religious rituals in great calm. At one place some sadhus were chanting the Shanti Mantra while studying in school as a child; I had also memorized the Shanti mantra. I also started to hum from a distance. The Shanti Mantra is mentioned in the Upanishad’s, and Veda’s. Probably since then, people have been humming them on the banks of the Ganges.

 Hindu philosophy and the importance of peace.  

ॐ सह नाववतु |

सह नौ भुनक्तु |

सह वीर्यं करवावहै |

तेजस्विनावधीतमस्तु मा विद्विषावहै॥

ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः॥

Om! May God protect us both together; may God nourish us both together;

May we work conjointly with great energy,

May our study be vigorous and effective;

May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any).

Om! Let there be Peace in me!

Let there be Peace in my environment!

Let there be peace in the forces that act on me!

ॐ द्यौः शान्तिरन्तरिक्षं शान्तिः

पृथिवी शान्तिरापः शान्तिरोषधयः शान्तिः । वनस्पतयः शान्तिर्विश्वेदेवाः शान्तिर्ब्रह्म शान्तिः

सर्वं शान्तिः शान्तिरेव शान्तिः सा मा शान्तिरेधि ॥

ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥

— यजुर्वेद ३६:१७

Om. May peace radiate there in the whole sky as well as in the vast ethereal space everywhere.

May peace reign all over this earth, in water and in all herbs, trees, and creepers.

May peace flow over the whole universe.

May peace be in the Whole Universe. And may there always exist in all peace and peace alone.

Om peace, peace, and peace to us and all beings!

— (Translation by Swami Abhedananda, Ramakrishna Vedanta Math, India)

For More information about Hindu Philosophy, please visit : http://nithinks.com/2020/12/03/hindu-philosophy-and-the-importance-of-peace-9-11-1893-9-112001/

 The darkness was still dense. But one could easily see the giant painting on the walls.

The huge painting of Lord Shiva on a wall was very attractive. In this painting, Lord Shiva is depicted as the protector of nature.

Walking slowly, I reached my destination Panch- Ganga Ghat. There is a hundred of thousands of years old tradition of bathing in the Ganges in Varanasi, all the Ghats have their own historical significance, and there are many festivals of bathing in the Ganges in Varanasi. Religiously, bathing at this place was of paramount importance.

Shadow of Islamic imperialism and the Makarsankranti:

A Knowledge of History, even of the darkest past, can be quite useful, even for the future. (Anatoly Markusha, Miracles on wheels)

Panch-Ganga is among the five major and oldest ghats of Varanasi. Its ancient name was Bindumadhav Ghat. This Ghat got its name from the ancient temple of Bindumadhav (Lord Vishnu). In the seventeenth century, this ancient temple was demolished by the Islamic ruler Aurangzeb, and a mosque was built from the rubble of that ancient temple. Since then the name of this place became Panch Ganga in place of Bindumadhav.

With the tradition of bathing in the holy river on special occasions, and with such small habits, did our ancestors manage to save their religion!

 Could we save our religion only with the help of our culture!

Who were those people who not only kept their traditions alive even after the destruction of their temples, idols of Gods but also defeated foreign invaders?

Maxim Gorky the founder of soviet literature

Schools should introduce one more, very important, subject- The History of labor, the brilliant and tragic history of man’s struggle with the natural world, the history of his discoveries and inventions, his victories and triumphs over the forces of nature.”


And a little later he wrote: “I believe very strongly in miracles made by the intelligence and imagination of man; I know no other miracles.”

For more information about this topic please visit :- http://nithinks.com/2019/10/07/islamic-imperialism-breaking-of-idols-hindu-struggle-past-present/

Remembering my great ancestors, I also decided to take a holy dip on this holy day, the holy place of the holy city. Makrasankranti has been one of my favorite festivals since childhood, but before today Makarsankranti meant for me only the taste of many types of dishes, and flying kites throughout the day. Today’s experience was completely new to me and was like a cultural journey that I cannot forget in my lifetime.