ASHOKAN PILLAR, LION CAPITAL, ITS HISTORY, AND IMPORTANCE.

Four lions standing back to back, with mouths wide open, their tongue sticking out, and their teeth seem to be as pointed as spears, the claws are protruding from their paws.
The well-formed veins and mane of these four lions look very beautiful. These lions roaring in all four directions are undoubtedly a symbol of strength, power, and royalty. To a large extent, it is possible that the warning of Emperor Ashoka in the context of people trying to divide Buddhism is inscribed on the top of the pillar and these four lions are an attempt to embody the warning and make the warning relatively more effective. From the structure of the eyes of the four lions, it appears that the circular structure of these eyes must have been studded with precious stones.

What is the meaning of Ashoka Pillar Sarnath?

The pillar in Sarnath on which the warning given by Emperor Ashoka to the divisive forces in Buddhism is inscribed is called the Ashoka Pillar of Sarnath.

Where is Sarnath situated and what is it famous for?

Sarnath is situated at a distance of about 12 km from the main city of Varanasi. Lord Buddha gave his first sermon here in Sarnath. DHAMMA CHAKRA PARIVARTAN (TURNING THE WHEEL OF DHARMA).

Buddhist monasteries, temples, pillars, and some stupas were built here by Emperor Ashoka during his reign. Afterward, Sarnath was completely destroyed by the Muslim invaders.

What is meant by Lion Capital?

LION CAPITAL:- The top (crown) of the Ashoka pillar found at Sarnath is known as the Lion Capital. This is a figure with four lions. After the independence, FOUR-FACED LION (LION CAPITAL) was adopted as THE EMBLEM OF INDIA.

THE LION CAPITAL was excavated from SARNATH, and this was a part of ASHOKAN PILLAR The emblem of India reflects India’s traditions, glorious history, and heritage. Undoubtedly, this statue of four lions is a unique example of ancient sculpture in India.

It can be seen as the emblem of the Government of India on all the major buildings, medals of honor,(Param Veer Chakra, Shaurya Chakra, Ashok Chakra), passports, etc. It can also be seen on the currencies issued by the Government of India, present slightly above the bottom right corner of each note beside its value.

As per our convenience, we can divide the Ashoka Pillar into three main parts.

1 PILLAR

2. LION CAPITAL

3. 32 SPOKE WHEEL

ASHOKAN PILLAR :- CONJECTURAL VIEW OF LION CAPITAL WITH PILLAR AND CHAKRA


A schematic reconstruction of the lion capital of Ashoka at Sarnath using the measurements and estimate of the excavator F. O. Oertel (Reports of the Archaeological Survey of India, 1904-1905), published in 1908, and pictures of a replica at Wat Umong

ASHOKA PILLAR IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

During the archaeological excavations at Sarnath in 1905, Mr.F.O. Oertal found the remains of a square temple on the west side of the Dhamekh Stupa.

Broken pieces of the Ashoka pillar were found a few feet away from the main wall of this temple.

These square room-like structures were the ruins of the huge Mulagandha Kuti Vihara temple. The Mulgandha Kuti Vihar Temple was built at the place where Gautam Buddha used to meditate during his stay at Sarnath.

One part of the Pillar was embedded in its base. Other broken parts of the pillar were also found near it. The Ashoka Pillar is made of sandstone found in Chunar, some distance away from Varanasi.

There are no joints or fixes anywhere in the pillar, so the pillar must have been cut from a huge piece of stone. combining all the broken pieces of the Ashoka Pillar received at present, its length is 17.5 feet. This shows that a large part of the column is missing.

KUSHAN AND GUPTA PERIOD INSCRIPTIONS ON THE ASHOKA PILLAR .

Kushan( second century A.D.) and Early Gupta period (300AD) inscriptions.

The Ashoka column also bears two other inscriptions of later dates.

One of them which continues, as it were, the last line of the Ashoka inscription is dated in the reign of a certain RajaAsvaghosha in the fortieth year of the era of Kanishka.

The other inscription which is assignable to theearly Gupta period, that is circa 300 A. D., was recorded by the teachers of the Sammitiya sect, to which a reference has been made above. Ashoka’s warning have been inscribed in Brahmi script.

THE ASHOKAN PERIOD INSCRIPTION

The Ashokan period inscription on the pillar shows that Emperor Ashoka was not very happy about the divisive forces arising within Buddhist Sanghas. And for this reason, in this very inscription, Emperor Ashoka has warned the monks, and nuns who try to divide Buddhism and the Buddhist Sangha.

Whoever creates a deity in the Sangha, whether a monk or nun, will be forcibly put on white clothes and thrown out of the Sangha.

Emperor Ashoka’s warning to those who tried to divide the union.

THE TEXT IS IN BRAMHI AND THE LANGUAGE IS PRAKRIT. Pali was the vernacular language in those days. And so the warning was provided in this language itself so that the maximum no. of people can understand it.

Even in this warning given by Emperor Ashoka, there is no glimpse of violence from anywhere, this warning shows the extent to which Ashoka had assimilated the Buddha’s teachings of non-violence.

According to the Chinese traveler XUANZANG there was a huge Buddhist monastery at this place, about 1500 Buddhist monks and nuns resided in this monastery, perhaps this is why Ashoka has written this inscription for this monastery at Sarnath mentioned by Xuanzang . Presently the remains of this ancient Buddhist monastery are spread over a wide area around the Ashokan Pillar.

LION CAPITAL

Lion Capital can be mainly divided into three parts.

A. Bell-shaped vase covered with inverted lotus.

B. Abacus

C. Capital

A STONE PILLAR MORE THAN SEVENTY FEET TALL , WHICH IS SMOOTH AS JADE AND AS REFLECTIVE AS A MIRROR . (XUANZANG)

During his visit to India, between 627 AD to 643 AD, XUANZANG came to Sarnath (also known as MRIGDAV, ISHIPATTAN) and was astonished by the grandeur of the Ashoka Pillar.

Lion Capital preserved in the Museum of Sarnath

A. Bell-shaped vase covered with inverted lotus

Bell-shaped vase covered with inverted lotus:- Lotus flowers are found all over India. Since ancient times, the lotus flower has been given special importance in Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain religious texts.

The images of Gautam Buddha found at Sarnath and other places in India depict Lord Buddha sitting, standing, meditating, and preaching on a lotus flower as well as it is also a sign of the womb of Buddha’s mother Mayadevi. Seeing the importance of the lotus flower in Indian culture, it also has the distinction of being the national flower of India.

B. ABACUS:-

The abacus structure bears living replicas of four animals and four wheels with 24 spokes. These animals are lion, Bull, Horse, and Elephant.

A wheel with 24 spokes is shown after each animal. There are different opinions among historians regarding the figures of animals built on the abacus.

If you look closer at the center of the Ashoka chakra (the 24-spoked wheel on the abacus, shown in the above image) you will find that it looks peculiarly rough and eroded relative to the surrounding regions which are extremely smooth and polished. Daya Ram Sahni believed that this was done intentionally. He believed that there probably would have been precious stones placed in the center of the four Ashoka chakras.

The centers were made rough so that the stone sticks better and more firmly at place.

MR BELL believed that the four animals built on the abacus are symbols of the animals living on the four corners of the ANOTATTA lake.

DAYARAM SAHNI also got a glimpse of the Anotatta lake in these animals.

ANOTATTA LAKE:- This lake is located in the Himalayas and according to Buddhist scriptures is the focal point of the world. Many historians consider that the present Mansarovar lake is the one that is referred to as the Anotatta lake in some places.

The rivers Ganges, Vankshu, Indus, and Sita are believed to be originating from this lake. This lake is considered one of the holiest places for Hindus, Buddhists, and Jains.

BRIJ WASI LAL. :- According to B.B Lal, (Renowned archaeologist of India) the Rakshastal near Mansarovar Lake, also known as Ravantal, was known as Anotatta Sarovar in ancient times. The Sutlej river originates from the Rakshastal or Ravanatal.

DR. BLOCKH:- He believed that these four animals are symbols of INDRA, SHIVA, SURYA, and DURGA From the depiction of these animals on the Ashokan pillar, he concluded that these three Gods and Goddesses had accepted the greatness of Gautam Buddha and had come under his shelter.

DR. FOGEL:- He believed that all these animals are just ornamentation, and they have been used on the abacus of Ashokan Pillar only from the point of view of art.

MANSAROVAR (WIKIPEDIA)

B. MAJUMDAR:- The most detailed, practical explanation of the animals carved on the Ashoka Pillar has been given by Majumdar, which also seems to be the most appropriate one. According to him, the lotus is not only a sacred flower described in Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist religions, as well as it is a sign of the womb of Buddha’s mother Mayadevi. Similarly, the four animals engraved on the abacus, and the 24 spoked wheels represent major events in the life of the Buddha.

ELEPHANT:- Elephant is a symbol of the dream of Mayadevi, (mother of Buddha).

From this dream, Mayadevi realized the arrival of Buddha in her womb. According to this story, Maya Devi, the mother of Buddha, had a dream before he was born. In the dream, Mayadevi saw a white elephant, which is entering her womb from the right side with a white lotus in her trunk.

The queen discussed the dream with the king. The king mentioned this incident to all the astrologers in his court, and wanted to know more about this dream, all the astrologers unanimously called this dream auspicious and something very special.

GALLOPING HORSE:- The horse is a symbol of the temporary royalty of the Buddha.

LION(THE ONE ON ABACUS):- A lion with a twitching tail, Lion symbolizes Gautam Buddha being Shakya Simha. (Lion of a Shakya clan )

TAURUS

TAURUS:- It is the symbol of the birth sign of Buddha. Some historians associate it with ancient plowing and seed sowing. (Here it symbolizes the planting of new ideas by the Buddha).

TWENTY -FOUR SPOKED WHEEL

Twenty-four spoked wheel of the MORAL LAW. The twenty -four spokes on the spinning wheel symbolize the twenty four Pratyay (teachings) of Buddhism. The spinning wheel in the middle of the national flag of India is also taken from here.

It is known as ASHOKA CHAKRA because it was built on the Ashokan Pillar. Note that these four, twenty-four-spoked wheels are the ones that are made on the abacus facing the four directions and not the 32-spoked wheel at the top.

Also note that the 32-spoked wheel cannot be seen on the actual lion capital which is kept in the Sarnath archeological site museum because it was found broken, though its fragmented pieces might be seen which are kept in such a manner to illustrate how it might have looked and this is also the reason why the 32 spoked wheel might sometimes be seen in the replicas of the capital.

C.THE LION CAPITAL

The famous four addorsed lions. The figure of four lions is built on top of the abacus. These four lions are standing with their backs to their backs.

The jaws of these lions are open and the tongue is sticking out and their teeth seem to be as pointed as spears, the claws are protruding from their paws. The well-structured venison and mane of these lions are shown very beautifully.

From the structure of the eyes of the four lions, it appears that the circular structure of these eyes must have been studded with precious stones.

To a large extent, it is possible that the warning of Emperor Ashoka in the context of people trying to divide Buddhism is inscribed on the top of the pillar and these four lions are an attempt to embody and make the same warning effective.
THE FOUR LIONS ARE SYMBOLS OF BUDDHIST MONKS PROCLAIMING BUDDHA’S TEACHINGS IN ALL FOUR DIRECTIONS.

Lion capital with 32 spokes wheel, only a few fragments of this wheel were found in the excavations at Sarnath which are preserved in the Sarnath Museum.

THE THIRTY-TWO SPOKED WHEEL


Remains of 32 spoke wheel in Sarnath Museum

DETAILS OF THE TOP WHEEL OF THE LION CAPITAL

This wheel (The symbol of Buddhist law), originally adorned the ‘Lion Capital as a crowning member, supported on a short stone shaft. The stone shaft was not discovered from excavation but the thickness can be estimated from the mortice hole, 20.5 cm. In diameter, drilled into the stone between the heads of the four seated lions.

Four fragments of the rim portion of the wheel and spoke remains were found. The total number of spokes was presumably 32. These 32 spokes perhaps indicate the 32 chief signs of a Great Man (Mahapurusha Lakshana) as described in the Buddhist text Lakkhan sutta of Dighnikaya.

I personally believe that the Ashokan Pillar found in Sarnath is not only the national symbol of India, but the it is the embodiment of the entire heritage of India. Ashokan Pillar is a symbol of Buddha’s teachings, Ashoka’s welfare state, and a symbol of India’s civilization and its gradual development. Even from the point of view of ancient Indian sculpture, the Ashokan Pillar is incomparable among all the ancient artworks.

20 UNKNOWN FACTS ABOUT BUDDHA .

Buddha condemned also the metaphysical and theological outlook , miracles , revelations , and dealings with the supernatural .

Ikshvaku was a famous dynasty in ancient India, Gautam Buddha was born in this dynasty. Like the Royal dynasty of Japan, the Ikshvaku dynasty is also believed to be originated from the Sun.

2. Buddha’s actual name was Siddhartha which means skillful in everything.

3. Buddha’s father Shuddhodana was a king. Buddha’s birth mother was Mahamaya. Lord Buddha’s wife was Yashodhara and his son was Rahul.  Lord Buddha lovingly called his wife by the name Gopa.

4. According to Buddhist literature Buddha was born on the full moon day of Vaisakhi, he also attained his enlightenment on this day and finally died also on this same day of the year.

5. Buddha attained enlightenment under a Peepal tree on the banks of the Niranjana River (the old name of Falgu river) in Uruvela village of Gaya. After attaining enlightenment, Prince Siddhartha was called Buddha, and the Peepal tree under which he attained enlightenment came to be known as the Bodhi Tree.

6. Prince Siddhartha was given the title of Buddha after attaining enlightenment by Nalaka, a fourteen-year-old boy from Uruvela village.

7. The Peepal tree under which Buddha attained enlightenment still stands tall in Bodh Gaya. A branch of this tree was replanted by the daughter of Emperor Ashoka ~ Sanghamitra in Anuradhapura(Sri Lanka) and that tree is also still there.

8. Buddha gave his first sermon after attaining enlightenment at Sarnath (place in Varanasi). In those days Sarnath was known as MRIGDAAV( Deer Park).

9. The name of the first sermon which Lord Buddha gave to his first five disciples at Sarnath was DHARMA CHAKRA PRAVARTAN (turning the wheel of moral law) this is sometimes referred to as DHAMMA CHAKKA PAVATTAN in Pali language as the consonant ‘r’ is often omitted in Pali.

10Kondanna became the first disciple of the Buddha. The other four disciples of the Buddha were Vappa, Bhadiya, Mahanama, and Assaji. Buddha had given his first sermon to these five disciples. Later on, these five were called Panchvargiya.

11. Buddha was against discrimination of any kind and did not believe in the superiority of caste.

12 . Clement of Alexandria(200 AD ) was the first person in Europe to use the name Buddha.

13. Currently Buddhism is the fourth largest religion in the world.

14. Buddha died in 544 BC, earlier modern historians did not agree with this date and cited 487 BC but now historians have accepted the date mentioned in ancient literature is correct.

15. Some Buddhist literature predicts the rebirth of the Buddha and it is believed that the Buddha will appear on earth next time with the name of Maitreyi Buddha.

16. In those days, Varanasi (Kashi) was not only a big center of religion but also business, Varanasi had no match in clothes made of muslin, even Lord Buddha used to wear clothes made of silk from Varanasi till the end of his life.

 I USED ONLY THE SANDALWOOD, THAT WAS BROUGHT FROM KASHI ONLY AND NO OTHER PLACE. MY DRESS WAS OF KASHI CLOTH, AND MY TUNIC UNDERROLE AND CLOAK WERE ALSO FROM KASHI. (BUDDHA –JATAKA TALE)

The dead body of Buddha was also wrapped with cloth made in Banaras.(MAHAPARINIBBANA SUTTA)

17. After the body of Lord Buddha was cremated, his ashes were placed in eight golden urns and sent to Ajatashatru of Magadha, Lichchavi of Vaishali, Shakya of Kapilavastu, Malla of Kushinagar, Bullij of Allakappa, Malla of Pava, Koliya of Ramgram and a Brahmin of Vethadipa.

This was done with the intention that after the construction of grand stupas at these places, these golden urns would be installed inside those stupas.

18. Some famous disciples of Buddha are:-

Sariputra, Ananda, Maudglyan, Upali, Suniti, Anuruddha, Anathpindak, Bimbasar, Prasenjit, Ajatshatru, Jeevak, Mahakashyap .

19. The Sutta Pitaka is one of the three parts of the Tripitaka. In this, all the major disciples of Lord Buddha have been described in detail.

Anand’s name has been mentioned the most in the Sutta Pitaka and his prodigious talent has also been described. Ananda had spent more time with Buddha than any of his other disciples. He had heard most of Buddha’s teachings and had memorized them, so after Buddha’s Mahanirvana, with the consent of all the monks, the burden of world welfare was put on his(Anand’s) shoulders.

20 . Lord Buddha was born, attained enlightenment, and died all on the day of Vaishakhi Purnima itself so this day is considered very sacred and this day is celebrated with great enthusiasm and in the commemoration of Lord Buddha.

20 interesting Facts About Ashoka Pillar Sarnath, (Lion Capital)

Ashoka Pillar of Sarnath gives a wonderful opportunity to understand ancient Indian history, every person who wants to understand Indian history must see this divine artwork at least once in their lifetime.

PRE REQUISITE KNOWLEDGE:

The Ashoka Pillar is divided into three major parts.
1.The Pillar.
2.The Lion Capital.
3.The 32 spoked wheel.

This diagram gives us a rough idea of ​​what the pillar might have looked like when XUANZANG visited India during the reign of Harshavardhana.

SARNATH

The place where Buddha gave his first sermon to his disciples in 600 BC.

Emperor Ashoka built this pillar at that place around 250 BC.

Chinese traveler XUANZANG came to Sarnath in the seventh century AD. XUANZANG‘s memoirs show that even after 900 years of the pillar’s establishment, he was astonished by its magnificence and construction.

The fragments of the Ashoka Pillar preserved in a glass show case at Sarnath.

A. PILLAR

1. When was the Ashoka Pillar built?

The Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath was built around 250 BC.

2. What was the purpose of establishing the Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath?

Emperor Ashoka was concerned about the divisive elements in Buddhism and about the monks and nuns at the monasteries who wanted to divide Buddhism.

He got the pillar established here to warn such people. Emperor Ashoka’s warning can still be seen clearly on the divided part of the pillar.

3. In which language is the warning of Emperor Ashoka written in?

The warning of Emperor Ashoka on the Ashoka Pillar of Sarnath is written in Prakrit language and the script is Brahmi.

4. When and how was the Ashoka Pillar, Lion Capital and the 32 spoked wheel discovered?

During the excavation of Sarnath in 1904-1905, fragments of Ashoka Pillar, Lion Capital and 32 spoke wheel were found near Mulgandha Kuti Vihar temple in the west direction from Dhamek Stupa.

Lion Capital found in the archaeological excavation of Sarnath in 1905. The broken part of the pillar can be clearly seen where Emperor Ashoka’s warning is inscribed.

5. Who discovered the Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath?

Archaeological excavations of Sarnath in 1904–1905 were led by Mr. Ortel, so the discovery of the pillar, the Lion Capital and the 32-pointed wheel is attributed to Mr. F. O. Ortel.

6. What is the Ashoka Pillar made of?

The Ashoka Pillar is made of sandstone from Chunar (located at a distance of about 40 km from Varanasi).

7. Is the description of Ashoka Pillar found in history?

The famous Chinese traveler XUANZANG came to India during the reign of Harshavardhana.

During his visit to India, between 627 AD to 643 AD, XUANZANG came to Sarnath (also known as MRIGDAV, ISHIPATTAN) and was astonished by the grandeur of the Ashoka Pillar. XUANZANG was most impressed by the brilliance of Lion Capital, it is surprising that Lion Capital is still as bright and gorgeous today as it was back then.
XUANZANG WROTE——

………. IN FRONT OF IT, IS ERECTED A STONE PILLAR MORE THAN SEVENTY FEET TALL , WHICH IS SMOOTH AS JADE AND AS REFLECTIVE AS A MIRROR .

Lion Capital at Sarnath Museum.

B.LION CAPITAL

The most beautiful part of the Ashoka Pillar is the Lion Capital.
The Lion Capital (the top part of the Ashoka Pillar) is about 7 feet high.

8. Where is the Lion Capital currently kept?

Presently the Lion Capital (the top part of the Ashoka Pillar) is preserved in the archaeological museum at Sarnath, Varanasi.

9. What does the 4 Asiatic lions of the Lion Capital roaring in all four directions symbolize?

The four Asiatic lions proclaim Buddha’s teachings in all four directions with their backs to their backs symbolize the spread of Buddha’s teachings.

10. Why are the four lions shown in an aggressive posture in Lion Capital?

Warnings are always given in harsh words, so that everybody obeys them, the pillar on which this Lion Capital is situated has a clear warning of Emperor Ashoka engraved on it, so the four lions are also shown in an aggressive posture just to make the warnings a little more effective and also to express the power of Emperor Ashoka, if the instructions are not obeyed.

11.When was the Lion Capital accepted as the National Emblem of India?

The Lion Capital was adopted as the national emblem of India on 26 January 1950.

12. Why did the committee chose Lion Capital as the national symbol of India?

After the independence of India, we have adopted the spirit of peace, non-violence, coexistence, prominently in the internal policies of the country, the Lion Capital reflected these policies and commitment of the country.

India’s foreign policy is also based on the efforts of world peace, and the spirit of cooperation with all nations, so it will not be an exaggeration to say that Lion Capital India is a tableau of thousands of years of moral development of the country, so after independence, Lion Capital was accepted as the national emblem of India as it deserved to be, with its mightiness and magnificence.

13. How is the Lion Capital a symbol of India’s glorious history and culture.

Lion Capital is a unique specimen of sculpture and it has been a witness to the most important events in the history of India, it is a priceless work showing the natural development of Indian history.

14. Which animals are depicted on the abacus at the base of the Lion Capital?

A lion with twitching tail, a bull, a galloping horse and an elephant are depicted on the abacus at the base of the Lion Capital.

15. How many wheels are there on the abacus?

There are four wheels with 24 spokes on the abacus. Each wheel is located between the figures of two animals.

16. What do the animals on the Lion Capital represent?

The lion represents sakyasimha , lion of the shakya clan , The elephant signifies shakyamuni entering the womb, the womb of his mother mayadevi in her dream, the horse, is a symbol of temportal royality, The Bull is a symbol of Buddha’s birth sign Taurus.

17. What do the four wheels with 24 spokes engraved between the animals on the abacus symbolize?

The wheel with 24 spokes represents the twenty-four teachings of Buddhism. This is the same wheel which can be seen at the center of our national flag.

C. WHEEL OF THE MORAL LAW

18. Where is the thirty-two spoked wheel kept at present?

Unfortunately only the ruins of 32 spoke wheel were found in the archaeological excavation of Sarnath in 1905, these remains are presently preserved in the museum of Sarnath.

19. What does the wheel with 32 spokes represent?

The wheel with 32 spokes represents the 32 characteristics of great men,(MAHAPURUSH LAKSHAN ) whose description is found in the Buddha literature.

20.How does the Ashoka Pillar reflect the tendencies of the artists of that period?

The Ashoka Pillar is also an example of the transition from wood to stone art by the sculptors of that period.

For detailed information on Ashoka Pillar please visit: https://nithinks.com/2021/11/22/ashokan-pillar-its-history-and-importance/

BODHI TREE (SARNATH)

WHEN I LOOKED AT THE KINGS OF TREES,” I KNEW THAT EVEN NOW I WAS LOOKING AT THE SELF – EXISTENT MASTER”. (ASHOKA )

Bodhi Tree Complex at Sarnath has been developed in Moolgandha Kuti Vihar courtyard. Inaugurating the Bodhi Tree Complex, Shri Dalai Lama said that the complex is dedicated to the service of humanity.

Why is the Bodhi tree considered the most sacred tree in Buddhism?

Bodhi Tree – Bodhi tree is the peepal tree located in the Mahabodhi temple in Bodh Gaya (Uruvela) in Gaya district of Bihar, under which Lord Buddha attained enlightenment in 623 BC.

Buddha also developed many new methods of meditation during the attainment of enlightenment under this peepal tree.

What do the words Budh,Bodhi mean?

According to the Buddhacharita,

The word “Awaken” in Magadhi language is known & pronounced as “BUDDH”. Thus the person who awakes (i.e attains knowledge) is called Buddha. For this reason Prince Siddhartha was called Buddha after attaining enlightenment. The word BODHI shares the same root as the word buddha and also means awakening. Magadhi language is the main language spoken in the Middle East of India.

I took this image from my mobile at a stationery shop in Sarnath

Some symbols have great importance in Buddhism.

LION ,STUPA , BODHI TREE , ELEPHANT , CHAKRA ,etc. Are all symbols that are associated with the life of Buddha. in some or the other way

LION :- LION REPRESENT SHAKYASIMHA, LION OF SHAKYA CLAN.

STUPA :- AFTER THE ADOPTION OF BUDDHISM BY EMPEROR ASHOKA , 84000 STUPAS (Buddhist prayer places) WERE BUILT BY HIM .

BODHI TREE :- PEEPAL TREE UNDER WHICH BUDDHA ATTAINED ENLIGHTENMENT .

ELEPHANT :- RELATES TO SHAKYAMUNI BUDDHA ENTERING THE WOMB OF HER MOTHER MAYADEVI IN HER DREAM .

CHAKRA :- (WHEEL OF THE MORAL LAW). DHARMA IN THE FORM OF THE CHAKRA (WHEEL) .

LOTUS :- SACRED FLOWER DESCRIBED IN HINDUISM AND BUDDHISM.

THE GREAT PEEPAL TREE

WHEN I LOOKED AT THE KINGS OF TREES,” I KNEW THAT EVEN NOW I WAS LOOKING AT THE SELF – EXISTENT MASTER”. (ASHOKA )


The Mahabodhi Tree at the Sri Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya, Bihar, India.

JOURNEY OF THE BODHI TREE THROUGH SRI LANKA

Anuradhapura  අනුරාධපුරය, r அனுராதபுரம்

ANURADHAPURA :- Anuradhapura is one of the oldest cities of Sri Lanka. It has been the capital of Sri Lanka in ancient times.

Emperor Ashoka, after adopting Buddhism, sent his son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamitra to Sri Lanka for the propagation of Buddhism. Sanghamitra took with her a branch of the Bodhi tree, and this branch of the sacred tree was planted in Anuradhapura. The new Bodhi tree which emerged from the branch of the original Bodhi tree is still present in Anuradhapura.

BODHI TREE IS PLANTED IN KASHI (VARANASI).


BODHI TREE SARNATH VARANASI

Why Bodhi Tree was Replanted in Sarnath ?

There is a wonderful story regarding the reason why the Bodhi tree was planted in Sarnath, and it’s as amazing as it’s unbound importance.

After the discovery of many relics of the Buddha period in Sarnath, the attention of the Mahabodhi Society established in Sri Lanka was drawn towards it. This organization was striving for the renewal of all the holy places associated with Buddha and Buddhism.

The construction work of the new grand Mulgandha-Kuti Vihar temple at Sarnath was completed in 1931 by the Mahabodhi Society. Meanwhile, Angarika Dharmapala, the founder of the Mahabodhi Society, replanted a branch of the Bodhi tree from Anuradhapura Sri Lanka(remember that this tree was itself a replantation of the original Bodhi tree!!!) in the courtyard of the Mulgandha Kuti Vihara temple. Presently it has grown into a huge tree which is technically the same tree under which Lord Buddha attained enlightenment.

BODHI TREE AND THE COMPLEX

IN 1999, THE BODHI TREE COMPLEX WAS WIDENED BY MAKING SPACE FOR MEDITATION AND DHAMMA SERMONS WITH TWENTY EIGHT IMAGES OF PREVIOUS BUDDHAS’ AROUND THE BODHI TREE BEGINNING FROM TARANANKARA BUDDHA TO GAUTAMA BUDDHA, ALL SAID TO HAVE BEING ATTAINED ENLIGHTENMENT UNDER THE SRI MAHA BODHI TREE AT BUDDHAGAYA AND PREACHED THEIR FIRST SERMONS AT ISIPATANA-DEER PARK, SARNATH.A GRANITE PLATE INSCRIBED WITH THE DHAMMA CHAKKA PAVATTANA SUTTA,THE FIRST SERMON OF THE SAKYAMUNI BUDDHA WAS ALSO ERECTED. THE ENTIRE BODHI COMPLEX CONSTRUCTED FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE HUMANITY AND TO GENERATIONS TO COME IN NEXT MILLENNIUM WAS DECLARED OPEN ON 17TH DECEMBER,1999 BY THE XIV TH HIS HOLINESSTHE DALAI LAMA WITH A MESSAGE TO THE WORLD TO RESTORE AND PROMOTE PEACE AND HARMONY IN THE NEXT MILLENNIUM IN LINE WITH BUDDHISM.

Bodhi Tree Complex images


Bodhi Tree Complex Entrance Gate


A HUGE BELL IS INSTALLED AT A SHORT DISTANCE FROM THE SACRED TREE.


THE RETAINING WALL AROUND THE BODHI TREE AND THE IMAGES OF THE SAKYAMUNI BUDDHA PREACHING HIS FIRST SERMON TO HIS FIRST FIVE DISCIPLES. THIS STRUCTURE WASERECTED IN 1989 WITH THE KIND ASSISTANCE – OF MAYANMAR BUDDHIST DEVOTEES.

KASHI, FOR IN HER EYES YOU CAN SEE THE PAST OF INDIA , AND IN THE MURMUR OF HER WATERS YOU CAN HEAR THE VOICES OF AGES LONG GONE BY .

If you are in Sarnath then do your best to stay here in the evening.

I reached the courtyard of the sacred tree around 6 o’clock in the evening. Almost all the tourists had left as it was slowly turning dark. I must say, there was, a seriously calm atmosphere. The birds were also returning to their nests, I could hear their voice as they were on their way towards home. I also heard some peacocks from time to time, the voices of birds were not creating any sort disturbance in the atmosphere of peace.

I was sitting on the stone steps of Mulgandha Kuti Vihar temple thinking something when a temple employee came towards me and said softly “Sir now it is time to close the temple so please vacate this campus.”

I agreed and was preparing to leave when I saw some people carrying candles towards the holy tree, I asked the staff and came to know that it is time for the evening worship of the holy tree.

I asked the employee can I watch this program? He smiled and said ” Of course”.Just take permission from the monks who organised this program. I moved towards those monks and expressed my wish, they happily granted me the permission I seeked.

After a few moments these monks started the circumambulation of the sacred tree, while doing the circumambulation, they also started lighting diyas on the small statues of Buddha around the tree. Now the monks started reciting religious mantras while doing the circumambulation.

I could not understand even a single word of this religious mantra, (I understood that the language was something special it didn’t sound like Sanskrit at all, but I was not able to figure out the language itself on my own) later I came to know that the monks were using the Pali language.

The original teachings of Buddha are in the Pali language. Pali language was commonly used at the time of Buddha and Sanskrit was the language of the elite people and Brahmanas. Today Pali language is taught in the universities of Varanasi but common people never use it, Pali language is not used even in the surrounding areas of Sarnath.

It was a wonderful experience to listen to Buddha’s teachings in the original language after thousands of years, at the same place where Buddha gave his first sermon.

I must say that it was a transcendental experience.
For a moment I felt as if Buddha was giving his first sermon to his disciples, and I am witnessing that moment too.

TOP NINE (NAVRATNA) MOST FAMOUS TEMPLES OF VARANASI .

Varanasi, the holiest city of Hindus, is also called the city of temples. There are countless temples in this city. Each temple has its own importance, history, and specialty, it is not possible to give information about all these in a single post, so I have tried to give information about nine important temples.

Note: In this post, for the sake of reading, I’ve just mentioned the main highlights of the top 9 temples and haven’t elaborated much about them, that’s why I ‘ve mentioned the links to my other posts in which I’ve talked about them in detail, so feel free to check them if you need any further info about a particular temple.

The city of Varanasi is the nucleus of Sanatan Dharma. All the sects, branches, sub-branches of Sanatan Dharma are deeply connected with this city. The cults (panth) which were born on the soil of the Indian Subcontinent like ~ HINDUISM, JAINISM, BUDDHISM continue to admire Varanasi as an important religious city for them.

It is quite difficult to tell how many temples existed in Varanasi before the arrival of the Muslim invaders as most of the remains have been erased, but there is no doubt that there still remain the remains of many temples, buried inside the Earth.

Muslim invaders destroyed the temples of Benares but could not erase the love of the Hindus of this holy city.

Presently there are countless number of temples in Varanasi. Some temples are ancient, some are witnesses to historical events, some have great religious significance, some very unique, some very strange. Devotees visit these temples throughout the year. In such a situation, selecting the most major temples is a complicated task, for the simple reason that the importance of these temples changes with a change in the frame of reference and viewing.

I’ve tried to keep all the factors in my mind while listing out the most major temples but still if you think I’ve missed out any one which I should have kept in the list feel free to drop a comment below it’ll be awesome to hear it from you!!!

MAARKANDEY MAHADEV


Main Gate of Markandeya Mahadev Temple

Markandey Temple is located at a distance of about 35 km from the main Varanasi city. This ancient temple is situated in a village called Kaithi near Saidpur on the route from Varanasi to Ghazipur.


Markandeya Tirtha situated at the confluence of Ganga-Gomti

This temple is situated on the confluence of river Ganga and Gomti. Since ancient times, the confluence of rivers has been considered very sacred in Hinduism and many pilgrimage sites are settled at the confluence of rivers.

Markandeya Mahadev Temple is one of the oldest temples of Hindus. The description of this temple is also found in Mahabharata.

मार्कण्डेयस्य राजेन्द्रतीर्थमासाद्य दुर्लभम् ।

गोमतीगङ्गयोश्चैव सङ्गमे लोकविश्रुते॥

(MAHABHARAT -PAGE 241)

According to the Mahabharata, there was a Markandeya shrine at the confluence of the Ganges and the Gomti. Hence the existence of Markandeya Tirth predates the Mahabharata.


Shiva (Mahadev) defends his devotee ~ Markandey from Yama(the god of death), Ravi Varma Press 1910.

POPULAR STORY

When Markandeya Rishi was born, astrologers told his father ~Rishi Mrikand that the child would live only for 14 years. The parents were shocked to hear this.

On the advice of the learned Brahmins, parents of the Markandeya started offering prayers to Shiva on the confluence of the Ganges and the Gomti. As soon as the child Markandeya turned 14, Yamraj came to take his life. (Yama is the Hindu god of death and justice)

At that time the child Markandeya was absorbed in the worship of Lord Shiva. Lord Shiva appeared as soon as Yamraj proceeded to take away his life. Lord Shiva ordered Yamraj to return when Markandeya has finished offering prayers.

Since then Markandeya ji and Mahadev ji were worshiped at that place and since then this place became famous as Markandeya Mahadev Temple.

NOTE :- This temple is located at a distance of 35 km from the main Varanasi city, but all the means of reaching the temple are accessible. At present, many air-conditioned buses of city bus service are also easily available on this route.

MULGANDHA KUTI VIHAR


Ruins of Mulgandha Kuti Vihar


Ruins of Mulgandha Kuti Vihar found at Sarnath excavation in 1905 behind Lion Capital

The ruins of Mulgandha Kuti Vihar were found during the excavation of Sarnath in 1905.
This is the place where Gautam Buddha used to meditate during his stay at Sarnath. Later, Emperor Ashoka built a grand temple here.

Chinese traveler Xuanzang (HIUEN TSANG) came here during his visit to India and according to him Mulgandha Kuti Vihar was a grand temple. The temple was completely destroyed in 1194 by Muslim invaders.Even today, seeing the ruins of this temple, the grandeur of this temple can be easily estimated.


The new Mulgandha Kuti Vihar sarnath

In 1931 the construction of a new Mulgandha Kuti Vihar temple on the lines of the ancient Mulgandha Kuti Vihar temple was completed by theMahabodhi Societyat Sarnath. At present the new Mulgandha Kuti Vihar temple is a major Buddhist temple in Sarnath.


Golden statue of Buddha located in Mulgandha Kuti Vihar


Paintings made on the inner walls of the temple

The golden statue of the Buddha sits inside the temple and the events related to the life of Buddha are depicted through huge paintings on the inner wall of the temple.

DURGA TEMPLE VARANASI


Durga kund shri Durga temple

This temple is also one of the oldest temples of Banaras. This temple has also been mentioned inKashikhand. This temple was rebuilt in 1760 by the queen of Nadia of Bengal state. The temple is mainly divided into two parts.
1)Durga Mandir

2)Durga Kund


Painting of Durga Kund temple by George Chinnery (1774-1852)

A huge pond is also a part of the temple, due to which it is known as Durga Kund.(as kund typically means ~a square pond)
The red colour of the temple’s building is its specialty.
It is believed that Mata Durga took rest at this place after fighting and killing Shumbha-Nikumbha. In place of the idol of Mother Durga, her face and feet are worshipped in the temple.


THE PRINCE OF WALES VISITING THE MONKEY TEMPLE , BENARES -THE GRAPHIC 1876.

THE MONKEY TEMPLE

Monkeys were seen in large numbers in and around the temple, due to which this temple got famous by the name of ‘Monkey Temple’ among tourists from western countries. At present, monkeys are seldom in and around the temple, but this temple is still quite famous as ‘The Monkey Temple’ amongst the tourists from western countries.

Read this article written by me for further details:- https://nithinks.com/2022/09/25/durgakund-shri-durga-temple-varanasi/

BHARAT MATA TEMPLE


Bharat Mata temple Varanasi

The building of this temple was designed by freedom fighter Babu Shiv Prasad Gupta and was inaugurated by Mahatma Gandhi in 1936.

This temple is one of the unique temples of Varanasi. There is no idol of any deity installed inside this temple. Instead, inside the temple, a huge map of the country of India is made on the floor. This map shows the geographical nature of integrated India. A map of undivided India (Akhand Bharat ) is carved in marble as a votive object.

Bharat Mata temple

The main building is double storied and square in plan. The map comprises 762 square pieces of marble measuring 11″x 11″. The relief map carved on the floor can be seen from the first floor’s circumambulatory passage. It measures 950 m x 920 m at the scale of 1:405500 (1 inch being equal to 6.4 miles.)

I’ve written a complete separate blog post about the Bharat Mata temple which you can read over here if you want :- https://nithinks.com/2021/01/25/bharat-mata-mandirmother-india-temple-and-vande-mataram/

ADI KESHAV TEMPLE

Adi Keshav temple

Adi Keshav was the most prominent and revered temple of Varanasi in ancient times. This temple is situated at the confluence of Ganga and Varuna. Historians believe that ancient Kashi was situated over here. The remains of settlements from 2000 BC have been found here in the excavation ofRajghat.


Watercolour painting of temples near Rajghat in Varanasi. From ‘Views by Seeta Ram from Patna to Benares’ . (DATE : 1814). This idealised view shows a group of temples at Rajghat, at the confluence of the river Barna (Varuna) with the Ganges, where principally the Adi Keshava and Sangamesvara temples are located.

IMPORTANCE OF ADI KESHAV TEMPLE

THE IMPORTANCE OF ADI KESHAV GHAT HAS BEEN MENTIONED IN KASHI KHANDA, MATSYA PURANA AND LINGA PURANA , THIS GHAT IS ALSO KNOWN AS VARUNA SANGAM GHAT . ACCORDING KASHI KHANDA AFTER BEING ADVISED BY LORD SHIVA , LORD VISHNU PUT HIS FIRSTSTEP IN KASHI AT THIS GHAT AFTER HE WASHED HIS FOOT HE LEFT A FOOT IMPRESSION ON THE GHAT WHERE HE INSTALLED STATUE OF HIS OWN. THE PILGRIMAGE IS ALSO KNOWN AS PADODAK TIRTHA ITS BELIEVED THAT A HOLY DIP AT THIS SPOT HELPS TO FREE THE DEVOTEES FROM THE CIRCLE OF LIFE AND DEATH . BHUDEVI, SRIDEVI, KESHVADITYA ARE ALSO WORSHIPPED AT THIS TEMPLE .THE TEMPLE OF ADI KESHAV HAS A SABHA MANDAP AND A GARBH GRIH.

This holy temple of Hindus was destroyed in 1194 by Muslim invaders. It was rebuilt in 1807 by Scindia (Sindhia) of Gwalior.

Note: – Presently the newly built Khidkiya Ghat in Varanasi is becoming quite famous among tourists, the distance from Khidkiya Ghat to Adi Keshav temple is about one and a half kilometer. Tourists visiting Khidkia Ghat can easily reach Adi Keshav Temple by foot, boat or vehicle.

Please visit this post of mine for more information regarding Adi Keshav Temple:- https://nithinks.com/2021/12/06/the-search-for-hindus-lost-temples-in-the-city-of-templesvaranasi/

VISHWANATH TEMPLE

HAR -HAR MAHADEV

This is presumably the most famous temple of Varanasi. Exact information is not available regarding when this temple first came into existence. This temple is a symbol of the struggle of Hindus against Islamic imperialism.

From the eleventh century to the seventeenth century, the incidents of temple demolition and construction kept happening.

Whenever this holy temple was demolished by Islamic imperialists, Hindus struggled to retrieve the temple and rebuilt it.

Temple Of Vishveshwur (vishwanath temple )Benares by James Prinsep 1834

The temple was rebuilt by Maharani Ahilyabai of Indore in 1777-80.
Later, Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Punjab got gold plated on the top of the temple. Maharani Baijabai of Gwalior built a pavilion and a huge Nandi statue was installed there by the Maharaja of Nepal.

I won’t write any further aboutVishwanath Temple and its history in this blog post as it is already exceeding 2700 words and is more or less a pain to read, so please take a look at this blog post of mine for further information, :- https://nithinks.com/2022/05/17/history-of-hindu-struggle-and-attainment-of-shivling/


Shri Kashi Vishwanath Dham

SHRI KASHI VISHWANATH DHAM

Kashi Vishwanath Temple has been expanded under ‘Shri Kashi Vishwanath Dham project’. The project of expansion of the Vishwanath temple by the Government of India was welcomed by all sections.

Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi told that earlier the area of ​​the temple courtyard was three thousand square feet and now it has been extended to five lakh square feet.

Prime Minister added that this whole new complex of Vishwanath Dham is not just a grand building. This is a symbol of the Sanatan culture of our India. It is a symbol of our spiritual soul. This is a symbol of India’s antiquity, traditions, India’s energy and dynamism. The Prime Minister said “when one comes here, they will see not only faith but will also feel the glory of the past here. How antiquity and novelty come alive together. How the inspirations of the ancient are giving direction to the future, We are witnessing this very vividly in Vishwanath Dham complex “.

ANNAPURNA TEMPLE


A Preacher Expounding The Poorans. In The Temple of Unn Poorna, Benares. Lithograph by James Prinsep (1835). British Library.

This temple was built by Vishnu Pant Gajade.

This temple is located near the Vishwanath temple. The speciality of Maa Annapurna Temple is that here Maa Annapurna is shown in the kitchen. There are many other idols installed in the temple premises. In which Mata Parvati, Mata Kali, Lord Shiva, and other deities are present. Mother Annapurna Devi idol is placed on a silver throne in the temple.

Note: Although this temple remains open throughout the year, the golden statue of Mother Annapurna can be seen on only four days in a year from Dhanteras to Annakoot.

Ancient story related to Annapurna temple construction

It is said that once there was a severe famine on the earth and there was a shortage of food. This caused an outcry on the planet. The people of the earth worshiped Shiva and prayed to him to remove the food crisis. It is believed that after that Mother Parvati reached the earth with Lord Shiva.


Mother Annapurna donating food to Lord Shiva

Mother Parvati took the form of Mother Annapurna and donated food to Lord Shiva. Lord Shiva distributed that food among the people of the earth. And then only the food crisis ended.

SANKAT MOCHAN


Main Gate of Sankat Mochan Temple

This temple is also one of the historical and famous temples of Varanasi. The Sankat Mochan Temple was established by Tulsi Das ji about 400 years ago. Goswami Tulsidas (1511 – 1623) was a great poet of Hindi literature.Ramcharit Manasis considered to be one of his greatest works.
Tulsi Das ji protected the Hindus from the self-loathing of defeat and restored the character of Lord Rama in people’s mind. I’ve elucidated about Tulsidas Ji and his unmatched contribution in protecting the Hindus and their unique culture in this blog post of mine, feel free to check it out for any further info. :- https://nithinks.com/2019/10/07/islamic-imperialism-breaking-of-idols-hindu-struggle-past-present/

Ancient story related to Sankat Mochan temple’s construction

According to religious belief, Tulsidas went across the Ganges after taking a bath. There was a dry Babool(acacia) tree there. So, whenever he went to that place, he never forgot to give water to the acacia tree. Slowly the tree started turning green.

One day while pouring water, Tulsidas found a ghost on the tree. He said- “DO YOU WANT TO MEET LORD RAMA ?” Tulsidas asked in surprise-“CAN YOU REUNITE ME WITH RAM?”

The ghost told that to meet Lord Ram, Tulsidas would have to meet Lord Hanuman first. He told him that if he went to the temple of Lord Rama in Karnaghanta he would find a leprosy patient sitting at the last, that patient is none other than Lord Hanuman himself. Hearing this, Tulsidas immediately went to that temple.

As soon as Tulsidas reached the temple and went on to meet the leprosy patient, he left from there. Tulsidas followed him. That leprosy patient went on and on and eventually entered the forest area. At that time this forest area outside the city was known as Anand Kanan Van. Tulsi Das thought that now the forest area has started and he cannot follow the patient any further. So he thought of a solution .

In such a situation, he touched the feet of that person and said “ARE YOU HANUMAN ???”, PLEASE GIVE ME DARSHAN .

After this, Hanuman Ji appeared in front of him in his actual form and on the special request of Tulsi Das, Hanuman Ji turned into a clay idol. A temple was built in the future at the place where Tulsi Das ji installed this clay idol, and that temple is what we now know, as the Sankatmochan temple.

VISHWANATH TEMPLE AT BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY


Main gate of Vishwanath temple at B.H.U


A bird’s eye view of the BHU Vishwanath Mandir.

Vishwanath temple of the BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY is a replica of the old Vishwanath temple which was built around 1585 during the reign of Akbar. During Akbar’s reign, Narayan Bhatt rebuilt the Kashi Vishwanath temple around 1585 CE with the help of his minister Raja Todarmal.

This temple was demolished by Aurangzeb in 1669 CE and a mosque was built from the ruins of the temple. This mosque is currently known as Gyanvapi Masjid.

The grand temple built in the B.H.U (BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY) campus is a replica of the temple built by Narayan Bhatt. Hence this temple is known as Naya (New)Vishwanath Mandir’ in Varanasi.

Due to the unimaginable cooperation of the Birla family in the construction of this temple, this temple is also known as Birla Mandir in other places of India.
It took almost 35 years to construct this temple, and it is one of the tallest temples in the country when measured from the top most summit.

Most of the temple is made of marble. The present building of Vishwanath temple is two storied and The idols of other major Hindu deities are also present in the temple.

The temples of Varanasi are not only important from the religious point of view but they are also living witnesses of ancient history. These temples also tell the history of Sanatan Dharma’s struggle against Islamic imperialism. In each and every difficult circumstance that one could possibly imagine, people saved their religion and culture and even today Hindu culture remains in its original form.

DURGAKUND : SHRI DURGA TEMPLE VARANASI

SHE ——THAT IS, THE REAL PERSONAL GOD IN INDIA IS SHE . THIS SHAKTI OF THE BRAHMAN IS ALWAYS IN THE FEMININE GENDER .

THERE ARE COUNTLESS TEMPLES IN VARANASI ,the holy city of Hindus. There is a story behind every temple, there is some belief behind the construction of every temple.

THE CONSTRUCTION OF TEMPLES IN VARANASI IS A CONTINUOUS PROCESS.

As soon as Varanasi got freed from the clutches of the Mughal Empire, construction of temples took place on a large scale. Many temples were built and renovated, in Varanasi by the Maratha rulers.

Kolkata emerged as a major trading city under the British rule, during this time many temples were built in Varanasi by the wealthy people of Kolkata. During that time a major temple built and renovated in Varanasi was Durgakund Temple.
Even today this temple is counted among the most prominent temples of Varanasi.


The statue of Goddess Durga, built in the eleventh century, found in the Chaukhamba locality of Varanasi. This statue has been kept in the Bharat Kala Bhavan, Varanasi.


Durga Mandir and Kund 1829 AD (BHARAT KALA BHAWAN)

DURGA TEMPLE AND DURGA KUND

This magnificent temple made of red stones has a square shaped pond next to it. This pond is a part of Durga temple itself. Because of being a part of Durga temple, this pond is known as Durgakund. Kund :- (Generally) A square shaped pond.


DURGAKUND 1860 AD

HISTORY OF DURGAKUND TEPLE

Undoubtedly it is one of the oldest temples of Varanasi. The mention of this temple is also found in Kashi Khand. It is believed that in ancient times the holy Ganges water used to come into the pond through a special drainage system in Durgakund.

Note: – This seems quite possible because in the famous Vishwanath temple of Varanasi the Shiva Linga was located in a small pond and in this pond the holy water of Ganga used to come into the pond through a special drainage system. This is described by James Prinsep in his book ~ Benares Illustrated.

STORY ABOUT THE TEMPLE’S ORIGIN

According to a story in Chapter 23 of Devi Bhagavata Purana, once upon a time in Varanasi there was a king named Subahu. King Subahu had a daughter. Her name was Shashikala.

When Shashikala became mature enough, his father King Subahu of Kashi eventually decided to organize a swayamvara for her marriage. Svayamvara was a system of marriage of princesses in ancient India. In which princesses themselves chose a man as her husband from a group of suitors. The men in the group were generally Princes and Kings. The meaning is self-evident from the word itself, svayam in Sanskrit means ‘self’ and vara means ‘groom’.

Kashi Naresh King Subahu later came to know that his daughter was in love with a forest resident prince Sudarshan, so instead of organizing a swayamvara, the king married her to Sudarshan as per the daughter’s wish.

When getting to know about the marriage, all the kings invited to the swayamvara got angry. They formed a united army and attacked the king of Kashi. When the King of Kashi(King Subahu) and Sudarshan prayed to Goddess Durga, she fought on behalf of the King of Kashi in the war. Goddess Durga defeated all the kings by her might. Thereafter, to express his gratitude to Goddess Durga, King Subahu got this temple constructed at this place.

There is another story regarding this.

According to the legend that after killing Shumbha-Nishumbha, Goddess Durga rested at this place after getting tired. Later, a temple was built by the king of Banaras in memory of the incident of Goddess Durga resting at this place.

MONKEY TEMPLE


The Prince of Wales visiting the Monkey Temple, Benares. Illustration by The Graphic Newspaper, 5 February 1876.


THE GREAT DURGAKUND OR MONKEY TEMPLE OF BENARES

How Durga Temple became famous as the Monkey Temple

The western media used to publish sensational news about India’s unique temples in great detail.

Western newspapers had published many pictures and articles about the large number of monkeys in this temple, due to similar reports, this temple also got the name of Monkey Temple.
The number of monkeys in the temple has reduced a lot, but still, this temple remains famous as the Monkey Temple among the foreign tourists.


Interior view of the monkey temple at Benares, India, showing elaborately carved columns and doorways. ( between 1890 and 1924)

MONKEYS OF DURGA TEMPLE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA

This incident dates back to 1888 AD. In those days there was a big outbreak of monkeys in and around the temple.

How is Swami Vivekananda’s birth related to Varanasi ??

Go read this blog post of mine to figure out-: https://nithinks.com/2022/01/11/vivekanandas-three-stories-that-can-change-your-life/

Swami Vivekananda was returning after having darshan from Durga temple. Suddenly a herd of monkeys started chasing him. Swami Vivekananda started walking faster, but the herd of monkeys did not give up on him. Swamiji almost started running after getting frightened by the herd of monkeys suddenly an old saint appeared.

He called out to Swami Vivekananda ‘Stop! Face the brutes!’ Swami Vivekananda stopped. He turned round and faced the monkeys. At once, they ran away. Swamiji also mentioned this story in his New York lecture.

Note :- Devotees used to give food items to these monkeys in the temple and due to this habit, they might have started chasing Swami Vivekananda in the hope of getting food items from him too.

This incident was small, but it brought a new twist in Swamiji’s life. Swamiji realized that he must not run away from adversity but face it firmly. As long as we keep running away from adversity, it keeps running towards us. But when we decide to stop fearing and face the problems firmly, then all the problems disappear.

DURGA TEMPLE AT PRESENT

The present-day building of Durga Temple was renovated by Maharani Bhavani Devi of Natori of Bengal province in 1760 AD. This temple is built in Nagara style. This is the most prominent style of construction of temples in North India.

@ Here in the place of the idol, THE MASK(MUKHDA) AND FOOTWEAR (CHARAN-PAADUKA) of the Mother Goddess are worshipped.

@ The red color of the temple depicts the incident of the KILLINGS OF KINGS who dared to face the mighty power of Maa Durga.

@ Although devotees visit this temple throughout the year but on the FOURTH DAY OF NAVRATRI, a huge crowd gathers for the darshan and worship.

@ The idols ofBaba Bhaironath, Lakshmiji, Saraswatiji, and Mata Kali are installed in separate temples near the temple.

@ There is a huge Havan Kund inside the temple, where daily Havans are held.

A month-long fair is held in the month of Savan, this fair is one of the major fairs of Varanasi.

Deadly attack on Sir Salman Rushdie and the spread of Islamic fundamentalism in South Asia.

BEHEADING IS THE ONLY PUNISHMENT FOR THOSE WHO INSULT PROPHET MUHAMMAD” Rushdie’s writings feature South Asia’s Islamic fanaticism. What similarities and future threats are there in the present-day mortal attack on Rushdie and the slogans of splitting up in South Asia???

A couple of weeks ago the famous Novelist, Sir Salman Rushdie, was attacked by an Islamic fanatic who tried to kill him.

According to the New York State Police, around 11 a.m. at the  Chautauqua Institution, in Chautauqua New York . A Muslim youth ran up to the stage and attacked Salman Rushdie with a knife.

The Muslim youth stabbed Salman Rushdie several times with a knife. Rushdie collapsed right there on the stage. He was immediately sent to the hospital. Doctors there said that Rushdie was completely covered in blood after the attack. According to media reports, Rushdie is seriously injured and is undergoing treatment. Doctors have performed surgery on him. According to the information, his health has already improved quite a lot and is gradually getting better, he has now been removed from the ventilator.

The attacker is 24 years old and has been identified. His name is Hadi Matar.

SALMAN RUSHDI

Salman Rushdie is an Indian-born British-American novelist. Known for his provocative writings on medieval thought and ideology of Islam. His novel, written in the early days, describes the stifling social environment of the converted Muslims of South Asia.

Note:- I consider Rushdie’s book “Shame” written upon the Muslims of South Asia to be equivalent to “Among The Believers” by V.S Naipaul. Both books depict the medieval behavior of the converted Muslims of South Asia. While Naipaul speaks very clearly in his writings, Rushdie attacks Islamic beliefs with the help of satire and imagery. How the seeds of Islamic terrorism were being planted in South Asia, which currently exports Islamic terrorism to the entire world, have been very well portrayed by both the authors.

THE REASON FOR THE FATAL ATTACK ON RUSHDIE

THE TALIBAN WHEN THEY SAY SOMETHING, THEY DO IT . THEY THREATEN TO KILL PEOPLE AND THEY DO IT . BUT WHEN WE SAY WE WILL PROTECT YOU , WE OFTEN DO NOT — Jelani popal , afghan government official

The attacker attacked Rushdie with the intention of slitting his throat.

  1. The attacker considers Rushdie to be an ENEMY OF ISLAM According to him, Rushdie is accused of blasphemy and such a person has no right to live according to Islamic law. Salman Rushdie has been a target of Islamic fundamentalists ever since the publication of his book “Satanic Verses”. In 1989, Iran’s religious leader Ayatollah Khomeini issued a fatwa against Rushdie, calling the book “Satanic Verses” an insult to Islam. On February 14, 1989, the fatwa to kill Rushdie was officially announced on Radio Tehran by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini saying that the book was “blasphemous against Islam”.

WHAT IS FATWA

The decree issued on any issue related to Islam on the basis of Quran and Hadith is a fatwa.

According to media reports, Hadi Matar was not under the influence of the fatwa.
So was he making an easy way to enter Paradise by killing a GUSTAKH E NABI. GUSTAKH E NABI KI EK SAJA SIR TAN SE JUDA. Beheading is the only punishment for those who insult Prophet Muhammad.’ 

But take not friends

From their ranks Until they flee

In the way of God (From what is forbidden). And (in any case) take No friends or helpers

But if they turn renegades, Seize them and slay them Wherever you find them;

From their ranks…..

(Quran, 4.89)

The attack on Salman Rushdie is not just an attack on a human being. It is an attempt to suppress a strong and loud voice against fundamentalism. The concept of modern world is not only from modern electronic devices, ideas like democracy, coexistence, space for opposing views, multiculturalism are the foundation of the modern world. If any person rejects or attacks these ideas of modern times, then his medieval thinking is a threat not only to the present but also to the future.

So, how will the attack on Rushdie, who raised his voice against Islamic fundamentalism in South Asia, affect the countries in South Asia?

“There is no God but Allah, and Mohammed is the prophet of Allah.’ Such is the cry which electrifies 250 millions of the inhabitants of this globe. Such is the cry which thrills them so that they are ready to go forward and fight for their religion, and consider it a short road to Paradise to kill Christians and Hindus and unbelievers. Dr Theodore Pennell Missionary Doctor at Bannu , Among the wild tribes of the afghan frontier 1909

JAMA MASJID DELHI

THE IMPACT OF THE ATTACK IN SOUTH ASIA

This attack will have far-reaching consequences in the converted Muslim-majority countries of South Asia. Like mushrooms, Islamic seminaries spread across South Asia will leave no stone unturned to justify the attack on Salman Rushdie.

The attack on Salman Rushdie is being promoted as an Islamic victory and this propaganda will continue. With the help of Hadi Matar’s jihadi image, youth will be inspired for jihad.

Describing any Islamic terrorism act in the world as jihad, giving martyr status to jihadis is an old custom of madarasas of Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh. Presently these madarasas are engaged in the production of human bombs day and night like a sucide bomb factory.

Any kind of question mark on the beliefs of Islam falls under blasphemy.

Beheading the person who put the question mark is a holy act like worshiping God for Muslims. Medieval Islamic beliefs, such as the beheading of a non-religious person, a blasphemer, are rapidly spreading across South Asia again. Incidents of beheading are happening not only in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh, but also in the Hindu-majority country of India, dozens of people have been beheaded by Islamic extremists in just the past few months.

Nowadays, whether it is a virus, or ideology, it cannot be limited in one scope. 9/11 is the best example of this. The revival of the Islamic practice of cutting throat in South Asia is a warning bell for the whole world. The goal of Islamic fundamentalists is very clear. The killing of any non-religious person remains a guarantee of paradise.

At the same time, countries who believe in the democratic values ​​of the world have so far been unsuccessful in even deciding the definition of terrorism. It seems impossible to defeat Islamic terrorism without all the democratic countries of the world coming and together.

BRITISH RULE AND BANARAS (VARANASI)

In this post I would like to mention some of the major buildings, institutions, built in and around Benares under the East India Company and the British rule, which are still in existence and which are a major part of the daily life of the people of Banaras from the time of its construction till the present.

BRITISH RULE AND BANARAS

Declaring the rule of the Nawabs and the Rajas administratively unsuccessful, the Company took Banaras under its control in 1781.

The magistrates posted on behalf of the company started taking care of the governance of Banaras. On behalf of the company, in 1788, a young man, Jonathan Duncan, was appointed as the Resident and Superintendent of Benares. The management of the mint house was also taken away from the hands of the Raja of Banaras. From 1794 onwards, the British civil and criminal courts also started functioning.

BITTER MEMORIES OF BANARAS (VARANASI)

Learning a lesson from the “Benaras – Rebellion”, Duncan refrained from any interference in the religious rules and regulations of the Hindus. In 1781, the people of Banaras revolted against Warren Hasting who insulted Raja Balvant Singh of Banaras. This rebellion was more commonly known among the British people as “Benaras slaughter” because a large number of British soldiers were killed in this rebellion. If you don’t have any idea about the “Benares rebellion” consider reading this post of mine — https://nithinks.com/2020/08/14/benares-rebellion-15august-1781/

GOVT. SANSKRIT COLLEGE BENARES

By the end of the eighteenth century, the British thought of opening a Sanskrit college in Banaras.

  • Kashi Nath, the first Acharya of Sanskrit College, wrote a letter to the East India Company officials regarding Sanskrit College .
  • In 1791,Duncan also wrote a letter to the officers of the Company regarding the establishment of Sanskrit College at Benaras.
  • Duncan moved from Banaras to Bombay in 1795 but remained associated with the Sanskrit school for life.
  • Sanskrit College initially had eight teachers and about 200 students.
  • In the early days of Sanskrit College, only the rituals, traditions and religious beliefs related to Hindu religion were taught in the curriculum, due to this almost all the teachers and students of the college were Brahmins.

Expansion of Sanskrit College

In 1846 Dr. J.R.Valentine was appointed as the principal of the Sanskrit College. In 1852 the new building of Sanskrit College was completed and Sanskrit College was given a new name — Queen’s College.


QUEEN’S COLLEGE BENARES

The new building was designed by Major Kittu. Built in Gothic style, this building is made of the Chunar sandstone.

Renowned scholar Bapu Dev Shastri teaching Indian astrology to his students at Queen’s College. (1870)


SAMPURNANAND SANSKRIT UNIVERSITY

SAMPURNANAND SANSKRIT UNIVERSITY

With the special efforts of the “then” Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, Dr. Sampurnanand, this college got the status of a university and this college’s name was changed from “Queens College” to, “Sanskrit Mahavidyalaya Varanasi“. In 1974, the name of this university was changed for one last time to Sampurnanand Sanskrit university .

Unlike before various subjects related to Hindu religion, culture and civilization are taught here. At present there is also a museum and Saraswati Bhavan Library in the premises of the university.

Sampurnanand University Archaeological Museum :- Most of the items in this museum were found in the excavation of Sarnath by Major Kittu. (Sarnath is a holy place for Buddhists). Sarnath is located at a distance of about ten kilometers from the main city of Varanasi. Gautam Buddha gave his first sermon here which is known as the turning of the Dhamma Chakra)

Saraswati Bhavan Library :- Thousands of manuscripts, and rare ancient texts are stored in the Saraswati Bhavan Library.

Note: – At present there is an intermediate college near Sampurnanand University which is also called Queen’s College, please do not get confused between these two.

Tomb of Lord Cornwallis

The tomb of Lord Cornwallis is located in Ghazipur city, about 84 km from Banaras.

Cornwallis served during the American Revolution as a Major General. Governor General Lord Cornwallis, who is widely known for his administrative reforms was also called the father of civil services in India. Lord Cornwallis died on 5th October 1805 in Ghazipur. He probably died of smallpox. British stones have been used in the construction of his tomb. At present, the tomb of Lord Cornwallis is located in Gorabazar, Ghazipur. GORABAZAR (Colony of white people). The British bungalows, kothis in Ghazipur city were located at this place, due to which the local people used to call this place by the name of Gorabazar.


The unfinished monument to the Marquis Cornwallis at Ghazipur

Painting of the Cornwallis tomb under construction by Sita Ram, who was working as a painter in the East India Company.
This painting was made in 1814-15 by Sita Ram during his journey from Patna to Banaras.

CHUNAR FORT OR CHUNAR GADH OR CHUNAR GUR

Artist: Hodges, William ( DATE :-1787)

The Chunar Fort is one of the oldest and most important forts in India. Evidence exists that the fort of Chunar was once under the control of Vikramaditya, the majestic king of Ujjain in 56AD. This fort has also been under the control of Prithvi Raj Chauhan. Sher Shah Suri made this fort his residence in 1538, during which a pavilion was also constructed by him here. The Mughals have also had authority over this fort for a long time.

After the Battle of Buxar in 1764, this fort came under the control of the British. Warren Hastings also took refuge in this fort during the rebellion in Banaras. After coming under the control of the East India Company, some British style bungalows were also built in this fort.(I think all these facts are probably enough to prove why this fort is considered important.)

Rediscovery of Lion Capital and how it strengthened India’s freedom struggle.

LION CAPITAL:

THE LION CAPITAL IS THE CROWN (TOP) OF THE ASHOKAN PILLAR found at Sarnath in Varanasi. During the archaeological excavations at Sarnath, in 1905 the Ashokan Pillar, the fragments of the 32-spoked wheel and the Lion Capital were unearthed. Today the remains of these findings are kept safe in the Sarnath Museum.

The credit for the discovery of Lion Capital goes to Mr. Oertel.

Ashokan Pillar is a statue of about seven feet. Its shape is like a blooming lotus. It is also considered to be bell shape.

In this idol, four lions are depicted in an aggressive posture sitting back to back. In the center of the statue is the shape of a round abacus, on which four animals, lion, elephant, horse, and bull are engraved. A wheel with 24 spokes (Ashoka Chakra) is made in between each of these animals. The total number of wheels is four which is obvious as there are 4 animals.

To understand Lion Capital, it is necessary to have brief information about Ashokan Pillar, Sarnath, and Emperor Ashoka. Therefore, the necessary information related to this topic is given below.

Sarnath:- Sarnath is the place where Buddha gave his first sermon later known as Dhamma Chakra Parivartan. (turning the wheel of dharma). It is located a few kilometers away from the main Banaras(Varanasi).

WHO WAS ASHOKA

DE VA NAM PI YA SA A SO KA SA MEANS “BELOVED OF THE GOD

Ashoka has been addressed with the same name on the inscriptions and pillars received as mentioned above. Ashoka Raja Address is found in Brahman Purana, the meaning of Ashoka Raja — a king who does not have any grief.

A FEW FACTS ABOUT ASHOKA:

@ Ashoka was the most prolific king of the Mauryan dynasty. He ruled from 269 BC to 232 BC.

@ He extended the boundaries of India to Hindukush in the north, Mysore in the south, Bangladesh in the east, and Persia in the west.

@ Emperor Ashoka is ranked among the greatest kings of the world, not just for conquering regions and boundaries, but also for establishing a welfare state.

@ Ashoka was probably the first emperor of the world to talk about human rights.

@ The credit for spreading the teachings of Buddha all over the world also goes to Emperor Ashoka.

ASHOKAN PILLAR OF SARNATH

The shaft is the cylindrical platform on which the Lion Capital is placed. Four large fragments of the pillar were found in the excavation.

The pillar was excavated by Mr. Oertel in 1904 -05.

The cylindrical shaft was built from Chunar sandstone and the shaft is estimated to have been about 50 feet tall. This sandstone is still used extensively in construction work in Banaras and Mirzapur (Chunar).

Please read my post for detailed information about Ashokan Pillar at Sarnath, Lion Capital. This post mainly targets how the Lion capital strengthened India’s freedom struggle. https://nithinks.com/2021/11/22/ashokan-pillar-its-history-and-importance/

What was the purpose of building Ashokan Pillar

ASHOKA’S WARNING IS ENGRAVED ON THIS PILLAR . Ashoka was troubled by the disruptive elements in Buddhism. The Ashokan Pillar at Sarnath was erected around 250 BC to give a clear warning to monks and nuns trying to divide Buddhism. This warning is directly from Ashoka,(King of patliputra, at present Patna) so it seems appropriate to call it an ordinance.

A huge Buddhist monastery was located in Sarnath, in which about 1500 Buddhist monks and nuns lived, undoubtedly this warning was given to these people.

Lion Capital as the National Emblem of India

The Government of India adopted the Lion Capital as the National Emblem on 26th January 1950.

Ashoka Chakra on the National Flag of India

The National Flag of India was adopted in its present form on22nd July 1947. The Ashoka Chakra in the center of the national flag of India, is also taken from the Lion Capital found at Sarnath.

Ashokan Pillar, Lion Capital before India’s independence

The Lion Capital was adopted as the national emblem of India and the Ashoka Chakra on the abacus also got a place in the National Flag after the independence of India, but the indelible impression of this Lion Capital was inscribed in the hearts of millions of Indians since 1905. Due to the Lion Capital being declared the National Symbol of India, it soon moved out of the history books and found a place in the Civics books.

Lion Capital’s Rediscovery and Historical Significance

DURING THE EXCAVATIONS AT SARNATH 1905, the ruins of Ashokan Pillar were found a few footsteps away from Moolgandha Kuti Vihar. Undoubtedly, the top of the pillar(Lion Capital) is a unique example of ancient Indian art. Soon the ancient history of India was lit up with the influence of the Lion Capital. The Ashokan Pillar, described by XUANZANG, and built by Ashoka, regained its prestige once again after being buried in the ground for nearly 700 years.

This rediscovery had far-reaching consequences.

@ The Ashokan Pillar told that the Golden Age of India was not just a mere fantasy. The pre-Islamic era of India was an era of glory.

@Western historians believed that the civilization of Greece was the highest ranking civilization in human history, but the teachings of Buddha, the history of the welfare state of Ashoka were now in a position to challenge this fact.

XUANZANG AND INDIA

XUANZANG came to India from the Silk Route (silk route) during the reign of Harshavardhana between 627-643 AD.

Banaras as described by Xuanzang :-

“The people of Banaras were very rich and their homes were full of valuables. The citizens of Banaras were very civilized and had a special love for education. The yields were very good and the trees were laden with fruits.”

Can such a description of any city and citizens be considered as a backward civilization during 627-643 AD?

@ The discovery of ancient Indian history among the nationalists of India led to tremendous development of the spirit of nationalism. Ashoka Pillar and Buddha’s teachings are abundantly mentioned in the writings and texts of almost all the prominent leaders who participated in India’s independence movement.

@ Christian missionaries who were involved in the business of conversion in India, were now facing a lot of difficulties to convert Hindus by calling them backward because the glorious history of Hinduism was affecting crores of Hindus. The famous American scholar and littérateur Mark Twain came to India and then to Benares in 1897. During his visit to Banaras, he has also mentioned that their were many Christian missionaries involved in conversion in Banaras.

@ The curiosity to know about India increased not only in Indians but also in western countries, it was against the prevailing belief in which Hindu civilization was portrayed as a defeated and helpless civilization.

@ The sense of non-violence, equality, and tolerance, which is seen in Gandhi’s philosophy was not new, but all these elements were included in the Hindu culture of India for thousands of years.
Peace, coexistence, and fraternity have been incorporated as an essential factor in India’s foreign policy after independence and remain an essential part of foreign policy even today. FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THIS SUBJECT PLEASE VISIT :- https://nithinks.com/2020/12/03/hindu-philosophy-and-the-importance-of-peace-9-11-1893-9-112001/

Even today, whenever I see the Lion Capital in the Museum of Sarnath, one subject immediately catches my attention the use of geometry in the construction of the Lion Capital.

VARIOUS TYPES OF GEOMETRICAL SHAPES like drum, disc, circle, have been used in this 7 ft idol. The spokes of the wheels are of uniform division, the roundness of the lion’s face is commendable, seeing all this, one thing becomes very clear that the people of India not only had a concrete understanding in geometry in250 BCbut that they also applied this knowledge of theirs while crafting sculptures and also in their day to day life.

The development of mathematics is a continuous process, the society sticking to the old ideology, conservatism can never contribute to the field of mathematics.

THE ATTITUDE OF INDIANS towards mathematics at that time clearly shows that the society used to accept new ideas quite easily. This is a clear indication that how new ideas of Gautam Buddha and Mahavira ( Mahavir Swami, the twenty-fourth Tirthankara of Jainism, were a contemporary of Buddha. Jainism has more emphasis on non-violence than Buddhism.) were easily accepted in the society without much opposition.

PRESENTLY THE LION CAPITAL adorning the museum of Sarnath, is a symbol of the ever-moving and dynamic Hindu culture and civilization. Millions of people every year who come to see this Lion Capital in this museum will undoubtedly have a wonderful infusion of the spirit of nationalism in their hearts. You will feel proud of your history. It can be expected that future generations will also be inspired by this experience for centuries.


IS AAMIR KHAN A ISLAMIC FANATIC ?

ISLAMIC FANATIC

The term Islamic Fanatic was used by the Britishers to refer to Muslims who lived in India and whose activities were entirely under the control of the Muslim religious priests and were always engaged in jihad(Islamic Holi War) against non-Muslims.

FANATIC

A person who is very enthusiastic about something and may have extreme or dangerous opinions (especially about religion or politics)

AAMIR KHAN

Aamir Khan is a popular actor of India, but in recent years he has been in discussion most of the time, due to his anti-Hindu activities and statements. Aamir Khan never hesitates in conversing with people associated with ISIS, the most dangerous Islamic organization in human history. On the other hand, Aamir Khan is afraid of living in a secular country like India? This kind of double standard, hypocrisy gives rise to doubt in the hearts of Hindus.

Why is Aamir Khan accused of being a Islamist fanatic ?

During his Hajj pilgrimage a few years ago, Aamir Khan was seen talking with people who support Islamic terrorism in Pakistan. Due to these photos, Aamir Khan was accused of supporting Pakistan and Islamic extremists. There was tremendous opposition to Aamir Khan on social media.

Hajj :- Hajj pilgrimage is the fifth pillar of Muslim religion. The pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city of the Muslim people, is called Hajj. According to Muslim belief, every Muslim must perform Hajj once in his life.



Mecca – Muslims congregate at the shrine of the kabba in mecca. They kiss and touch the black stone as they circle the kabba dressed in white to symbolize purity .

But main stream media came out openly in support of Aamir Khan. The print media was flooded with articles and columns in favor of Aamir Khan. Electronics media also started showing many discussion programs in favor of Aamir Khan. Due to this, the opposition against Aamir Khan on social media increased further more.

The nexus of Indian media and Pakistani terrorists was exposed by the arrest of Ghulam Nabi Fai in America. Since this incident, there is a perception of the common people in India that the media is a puppet of Islamic terrorist organizations and creates propaganda against India. To know the truth of the media of India, see this blog post of mine which describes the scenario in great detail:- https://nithinks.com/2019/04/30/rag-darbariparivardarbari-mobile-phone/

WHAT WAS THE MATTER

Muslim actor Aamir Khan was seen meeting with Pakistan’s Tariq Jameel, singer Junaid Jamshed, famous cricketer Shahid Afridi. All of them are famous personalities of Pakistan and they have a large number of followers but there are a few points all of them have in common-:

a. All were members of Pakistan’s infamous radical organization Tablighi Jamaat.

b. All of them not only believe in radical Islam but also have a hatred towards other religions and are known to ridicule of other religions from time to time.



Shahid Afridi sharing his hatred towards Hindu religion with people during a TV show

Maulana Tariq Jameel trying to show how Islam is superior to Hinduism

The Pakistani government is not only the biggest exporter of Islamic terrorists, but Islamic terrorism is an essential part of Pakistan’s foreign policy. Pakistan has been using Islamic terrorism against India for decades. Tablighi Jamaat organization has close links with all the hardline and dreaded Islamic terrorist organizations in the world and its main task is to spread terrorism in India.

T.J

TABLEEGHI JAMAAT “preaching party”

History of Tablighi Jamaat

Tablighi Jamaat was founded in the 1920s by Maulana Muhammad Ilyas Kandhlavi in ​​Mewat (India). Maulana wanted to run this institution on the lines of British Institute of Education. The main objective of the Jamaat was to spread religious education based on Hadith (the most sacred Islamic book after Qur’an).

Presently Tablighi Jamaat has spread across 150 countries. At present Jammat, Deoband, Madrasa, all are well connected with each other and the only goal of them is to spread Islam.

In several institutions a graduate who has completed his studies must spend a certain time-often up to two years in tabligh work before he gets his degree.

“Refutation” of the other, “false” religions is of course an element of tabligh. THE WORLD OF FATWAS OR THE SHARIAH IN ACTION .

Using the famous Muslim personalities of the world especially the ones in South Asia as an Islamic role model, Tablighis believe in conversion and for this they ridicule the beliefs of other religions, especially of Hinduism.

Aamir Khan’s behavior has also been found similar to that of a Tablighi Jamaati. Aamir Khan makes fun of Hindu deities, Hindu beliefs in his films, but when it comes to Muslim beliefs, like a staunch Muslim, he stands with full reverence. Aamir Khan even appears to be silent on matters such as the Islamic traditions which are now being opposed by modern Muslims like triple talaq, halala, burqa.

Aamir Khan’s double standards create suspicion among Hindus. Isn’t Aamir Khan playing the dirty game of conversion by taking advantage of India’s democracy, freedom of expression?

THE MILITANT FACE OF THE TABLIGHI JAMAT

Tablighi Jamaat is not just an organization that converts people of other religions into true Muslims.

The main task of Tablighi Jamaat is to prepare the world’s most cruel, bloodthirsty and violent Islamic terrorists. And the biggest example of this is– ABU MUSAB AL ZARQAWI.

a. The most brutal Islamic terrorist organization in human history is ISIS. (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) ABU MUSAD AL ZARQAWI, who laid the foundation of this organization, took his education to become a “Good Muslim” in the Tablighi Jamaat of Pakistan. This organization coined a new definition of terror and cruelty.

b. At present, considering the Islamic method of Tablighi Jamaat as dangerous, this organization is also banned in many Islamic countries. Surprisingly, the main countries that have banned Tablighi Jamaat as a dangerous Islamic organization are Saudi Arabia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan.

c. On 13th February 1995, a report was published in Pakistan’s newspaper The News was about the close links between Tablighi Jamaat and Harkat-ul-Mujahideen. The statement of a Harkat-ul-Mujahideen member was also published in the report.

d. The name of Tablighi Jamaat in India came into the spotlight a couple of years ago in 2020 when its members termed the corona vaccine as anti-Islamic and carried out fatal attacks on doctors, nurses who vaccinating the people at many places across India.

Sardar Patel had spoken in very clear words while addressing the Muslims of India.

To Indian Muslims, I want to ask only one question. In the recent all India Muslim conference, why did they not open their mouths on the Kashmir issue? why did you not condemn the action of Pakistan? these things create doubts in the mind of people. So as a friend of Muslims, I want to say a word and it is the duty of a good friend to speak frankly. It is your duty now to sail in the same boat and sink or swim together. I want to tell you very frankly that you can not ride on two horses. select one horse whichever you like best. Those who want to go to Pakistan can go there and live in peace! Let us be here in peace to work for ourselves…… 6 January 1948

These words are true even today. The Muslims of India have to understand that their interests can never be anti-national. Aamir Khan’s mysterious silence on the genocide of Hindus in Kashmir, mocking the religion of Hindus, while respecting the orthodox and medieval customs of Muslim religion also gives rise to natural doubts in the hearts of Hindus. It would be better if Aamir Khan broke his silence on these subjects and cleared the doubts of Hindus.

RESOURCES:

  1. ISIS THE STATE OF TERROR ~ JESSICA STERN AND J.M BERGER
  2. TALIBANISATION OF PAKISTAN FROM 9/11 TO 26/11 AND BEYOND ~ AMIR MIR
  3. THE WORLD OF FATWAS OR THE SHARIAH IN ACTION ~ ARUN SHOURIE
  4. GOD’S TERRORISTS THE WAHHABI CULT AND THE HIDDEN ROOTS OF MODERN JIHAD ~ CHARLES ALLEN
  5. HATRED’S KINGDOM HOW SAUDI ARABIA SUPPORTS THE NEW GLOBAL TERRORISM ~ DORE GOLD
  6. THE COLLECTED WORKS OF SARDAR PATEL