Rediscovery of Lion Capital and how it strengthened India’s freedom struggle.

LION CAPITAL:

THE LION CAPITAL IS THE CROWN (TOP) OF THE ASHOKAN PILLAR found at Sarnath in Varanasi. During the archaeological excavations at Sarnath, in 1905 the Ashokan Pillar, the fragments of the 32-spoked wheel and the Lion Capital were unearthed. Today the remains of these findings are kept safe in the Sarnath Museum.

The credit for the discovery of Lion Capital goes to Mr. Oertel.

Ashokan Pillar is a statue of about seven feet. Its shape is like a blooming lotus. It is also considered to be bell shape.

In this idol, four lions are depicted in an aggressive posture sitting back to back. In the center of the statue is the shape of a round abacus, on which four animals, lion, elephant, horse, and bull are engraved. A wheel with 24 spokes (Ashoka Chakra) is made in between each of these animals. The total number of wheels is four which is obvious as there are 4 animals.

To understand Lion Capital, it is necessary to have brief information about Ashokan Pillar, Sarnath, and Emperor Ashoka. Therefore, the necessary information related to this topic is given below.

Sarnath:- Sarnath is the place where Buddha gave his first sermon later known as Dhamma Chakra Parivartan. (turning the wheel of dharma). It is located a few kilometers away from the main Banaras(Varanasi).

WHO WAS ASHOKA

DE VA NAM PI YA SA A SO KA SA MEANS “BELOVED OF THE GOD

Ashoka has been addressed with the same name on the inscriptions and pillars received as mentioned above. Ashoka Raja Address is found in Brahman Purana, the meaning of Ashoka Raja — a king who does not have any grief.

A FEW FACTS ABOUT ASHOKA:

@ Ashoka was the most prolific king of the Mauryan dynasty. He ruled from 269 BC to 232 BC.

@ He extended the boundaries of India to Hindukush in the north, Mysore in the south, Bangladesh in the east, and Persia in the west.

@ Emperor Ashoka is ranked among the greatest kings of the world, not just for conquering regions and boundaries, but also for establishing a welfare state.

@ Ashoka was probably the first emperor of the world to talk about human rights.

@ The credit for spreading the teachings of Buddha all over the world also goes to Emperor Ashoka.

ASHOKAN PILLAR OF SARNATH

The shaft is the cylindrical platform on which the Lion Capital is placed. Four large fragments of the pillar were found in the excavation.

The pillar was excavated by Mr. Oertel in 1904 -05.

The cylindrical shaft was built from Chunar sandstone and the shaft is estimated to have been about 50 feet tall. This sandstone is still used extensively in construction work in Banaras and Mirzapur (Chunar).

Please read my post for detailed information about Ashokan Pillar at Sarnath, Lion Capital. This post mainly targets how the Lion capital strengthened India’s freedom struggle. https://nithinks.com/2021/11/22/ashokan-pillar-its-history-and-importance/

What was the purpose of building Ashokan Pillar

ASHOKA’S WARNING IS ENGRAVED ON THIS PILLAR . Ashoka was troubled by the disruptive elements in Buddhism. The Ashokan Pillar at Sarnath was erected around 250 BC to give a clear warning to monks and nuns trying to divide Buddhism. This warning is directly from Ashoka,(King of patliputra, at present Patna) so it seems appropriate to call it an ordinance.

A huge Buddhist monastery was located in Sarnath, in which about 1500 Buddhist monks and nuns lived, undoubtedly this warning was given to these people.

Lion Capital as the National Emblem of India

The Government of India adopted the Lion Capital as the National Emblem on 26th January 1950.

Ashoka Chakra on the National Flag of India

The National Flag of India was adopted in its present form on22nd July 1947. The Ashoka Chakra in the center of the national flag of India, is also taken from the Lion Capital found at Sarnath.

Ashokan Pillar, Lion Capital before India’s independence

The Lion Capital was adopted as the national emblem of India and the Ashoka Chakra on the abacus also got a place in the National Flag after the independence of India, but the indelible impression of this Lion Capital was inscribed in the hearts of millions of Indians since 1905. Due to the Lion Capital being declared the National Symbol of India, it soon moved out of the history books and found a place in the Civics books.

Lion Capital’s Rediscovery and Historical Significance

DURING THE EXCAVATIONS AT SARNATH 1905, the ruins of Ashokan Pillar were found a few footsteps away from Moolgandha Kuti Vihar. Undoubtedly, the top of the pillar(Lion Capital) is a unique example of ancient Indian art. Soon the ancient history of India was lit up with the influence of the Lion Capital. The Ashokan Pillar, described by XUANZANG, and built by Ashoka, regained its prestige once again after being buried in the ground for nearly 700 years.

This rediscovery had far-reaching consequences.

@ The Ashokan Pillar told that the Golden Age of India was not just a mere fantasy. The pre-Islamic era of India was an era of glory.

@Western historians believed that the civilization of Greece was the highest ranking civilization in human history, but the teachings of Buddha, the history of the welfare state of Ashoka were now in a position to challenge this fact.

XUANZANG AND INDIA

XUANZANG came to India from the Silk Route (silk route) during the reign of Harshavardhana between 627-643 AD.

Banaras as described by Xuanzang :-

“The people of Banaras were very rich and their homes were full of valuables. The citizens of Banaras were very civilized and had a special love for education. The yields were very good and the trees were laden with fruits.”

Can such a description of any city and citizens be considered as a backward civilization during 627-643 AD?

@ The discovery of ancient Indian history among the nationalists of India led to tremendous development of the spirit of nationalism. Ashoka Pillar and Buddha’s teachings are abundantly mentioned in the writings and texts of almost all the prominent leaders who participated in India’s independence movement.

@ Christian missionaries who were involved in the business of conversion in India, were now facing a lot of difficulties to convert Hindus by calling them backward because the glorious history of Hinduism was affecting crores of Hindus. The famous American scholar and littérateur Mark Twain came to India and then to Benares in 1897. During his visit to Banaras, he has also mentioned that their were many Christian missionaries involved in conversion in Banaras.

@ The curiosity to know about India increased not only in Indians but also in western countries, it was against the prevailing belief in which Hindu civilization was portrayed as a defeated and helpless civilization.

@ The sense of non-violence, equality, and tolerance, which is seen in Gandhi’s philosophy was not new, but all these elements were included in the Hindu culture of India for thousands of years.
Peace, coexistence, and fraternity have been incorporated as an essential factor in India’s foreign policy after independence and remain an essential part of foreign policy even today. FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THIS SUBJECT PLEASE VISIT :- https://nithinks.com/2020/12/03/hindu-philosophy-and-the-importance-of-peace-9-11-1893-9-112001/

Even today, whenever I see the Lion Capital in the Museum of Sarnath, one subject immediately catches my attention the use of geometry in the construction of the Lion Capital.

VARIOUS TYPES OF GEOMETRICAL SHAPES like drum, disc, circle, have been used in this 7 ft idol. The spokes of the wheels are of uniform division, the roundness of the lion’s face is commendable, seeing all this, one thing becomes very clear that the people of India not only had a concrete understanding in geometry in250 BCbut that they also applied this knowledge of theirs while crafting sculptures and also in their day to day life.

The development of mathematics is a continuous process, the society sticking to the old ideology, conservatism can never contribute to the field of mathematics.

THE ATTITUDE OF INDIANS towards mathematics at that time clearly shows that the society used to accept new ideas quite easily. This is a clear indication that how new ideas of Gautam Buddha and Mahavira ( Mahavir Swami, the twenty-fourth Tirthankara of Jainism, were a contemporary of Buddha. Jainism has more emphasis on non-violence than Buddhism.) were easily accepted in the society without much opposition.

PRESENTLY THE LION CAPITAL adorning the museum of Sarnath, is a symbol of the ever-moving and dynamic Hindu culture and civilization. Millions of people every year who come to see this Lion Capital in this museum will undoubtedly have a wonderful infusion of the spirit of nationalism in their hearts. You will feel proud of your history. It can be expected that future generations will also be inspired by this experience for centuries.


ASHOKAN PILLAR, LION CAPITAL, IT’S HISTORY AND IMPORTANCE.

Four lions standing back to back, with mouths wide open, their tongue sticking out, and their teeth seem to be as pointed as spears, the claws are protruding from their paws.
The well-formed veins and mane of these four lions look very beautiful. These lions roaring in all four directions are undoubtedly a symbol of strength, power, and royalty. To a large extent, it is possible that the warning of Emperor Ashoka in the context of people trying to divide Buddhism is inscribed on the top of the pillar and these four lions are an attempt to embody the warning and make the warning relatively more effective. From the structure of the eyes of the four lions, it appears that the circular structure of these eyes must have been studded with precious stones.

After the independence FOUR -FACED LION (LION CAPITAL) was adopted as THE EMBLEM OF INDIA.

THE LION CAPITAL was excavated from SARNATH, and this was a part of ASHOKAN PILLAR The emblem of India reflects India’s traditions, glorious history, and heritage. Undoubtedly, this statue of four lions is a unique example of ancient sculpture in India.

It can be seen as the emblem of the Government of India on all the major buildings, medals of honor,(Param Veer Chakra, Shaurya Chakra, Ashok Chakra), passport etc. It can also be seen on the currencies issued by the Government of India, present slightly above the bottom right corner of each note beside its value.

ASHOKA RAJA – THE KING WITHOUT SORROW

Why is Emperor Ashoka counted among the greatest rulers of not only India but the world?

Amidst the tens of thousands of names of monarchs that crowd the columns of history, their majesties and graciousness’s and serenities and royal highnesses and the like, the name of Ashoka shines, and shines almost alone, a star. From the Volga to Japan his name is still honored. China, Tibet, and even India, though it has left his doctrine, preserve the tradition of his greatness. More living men cherish his memory today than have ever heard the names of Constantine or Charlemagne. (Outline of History )H.G WELLS

EMPEROR ASHOKA IS PROBABLY THE FIRST EMPEROR IN HUMAN HISTORY TO ESTABLISH A PUBLIC WELFARE STATE. About 2260 years ago from today, Emperor Ashoka established the whole India as a nation and succeeded in establishing non-violence, and moral force as the most essential element of state building.

Fortunately, the words and deeds of Ashoka are still present among us. According to Charles Allen :- ” some seven edict rocks, eleven edict pillars, another nineteen more modest sites bearing what are usually referred to as the Minor Rock Edicts and perhaps a dozen more inscriptions in various forms that can be attributed to Ashoka.”

He was always ready for public business “at all times and at all places, whether I am dining or in the ladies’ apartments, in my bedroom or in my closet, in my carriage or in my palace gardens, the official reporters should keep me constantly informed of the people’s business”. If any difficulty arose, a report was to be made to him immediately “at any hour and at any place”, for, as he says,” work I must for the commonweal”.



SARNATH (VARANASI 1904-5) The treasure of ancient Indian history can clearly be seen in this picture. If you have been to the Sarnath archaeological site museum try to find out some of the objects you saw there in this picture.(Hint: Can you find the huge stone” CHATHRI” in this image.) There are many such objects in this image. Try to find out them yourself.



OLD MULGANDH KUTI VIHAR. THIS IS THE SAME SITE WHERE THE HISTORICAL OBJECTS ARE KEPT IN THE ABOVE BLACK AND WHITE IMAGE.

SARNATH :- PROCESS OF REDISCOVERY

Sarnath is situated at a distance of about 12 km from the main city of Varanasi. Lord Buddha gave his first sermon here in Sarnath. DHAMMA CHAKRA PARIVARTAN (TURNING THE WHEEL OF DHARMA) Buddhist monasteries, temples, pillars and some stupas were built here by Emperor Ashoka during his reign. Afterwards Sarnath was completely destroyed by the Muslim invaders.

XUANZANG :- Xuanzang (HIUEN TSANG) a famous Chinese traveler who visited India during the reign of Harshavardhana. Hiuen Tsang spent about fifteen years of his life in India. In the year 637 CE, Hiuen Tsang visited Sarnath. The memoirs of his visit to India, and the description of India during Harshavardhana’s reign, were described by Hiuen Tsang in his book Si-Yu-Ki.

The description of the major monuments, temples, Buddhist monasteries, stupas, Ashokan Pillar of Sarnath by Hiuen Tsang was the source of inspiration for the archaeologists of Sarnath excavation to find something new and interesting.


The Lion Capital was found during the excavation between 1904-05 in Sarnath. The ancient wall of Mulgandha Kuti Vihar can also be seen at the excavation site. The statue of Buddha meditating adjacent to the wall of the temple of Mulgandha Kuti Vihar is also clearly visible.

The Mulgandha Kuti Vihar Temple was built at the place where Gautam Buddha used to meditate during his stay at Sarnath. Fragments of the Ashokan Pillar can also be seen a few feet away from the wall of the temple.

It seems that a woman is cleaning a pillar that has been found during excavation, who has covered herself with a cloth to avoid the scorching heat of the sun. Presently Buddha’s meditating statue, Lion Capital and a lot of other things that were found during the excavations are preserved at the Sarnath archaeological site museum.

ASHOKAN PILLAR :- CONJECTURAL VIEW OF LION CAPITAL WITH PILLAR AND CHAKRA


You can imagine by looking at this drawing ,what the Askoka Pillar would have looked like in its original form. 7 ft high Lion Capital on a 50 ft high pillar (Only 27.5 feet of remains have been found in the excavation.) Xuanzang was also stunned by this panoramic view of the Ashokan Pillar.

The Ashokan pillar built during the reign of Emperor Ashoka can be mainly divided into five parts. 1. Shaft 2. Bell shaped vase covered with inverted lotus 3. Abacus 4. Capital 5. Wheel

Pillar


A schematic reconstruction of the lion capital of Ashoka at Sarnath using the measurements and estimate of the excavator F. O. Oertel (Reports of the Archaeological Survey of India, 1904-1905), published in 1908, and pictures of a replica at Wat Umong

A few feet away from Mulgandha Kuti Vihar in Sarnath, the pillar was found in a fragmented form. The total height of the pillar is assumed to be 45 feet and it is made of sandstone. The lower part of the pillar was built on a stone base. Apart from Ashoka’s inscriptions Kushan period and Gupta period inscriptions are also carved on this pillar. Ashoka’s warning is in Brahmi script.


This Ashokan Pillar at Sarnath was a monument to the event of turning the wheel of Dharma, and it was established during the reign of Emperor Ashoka to maintain the integrity of the Dharma Sangha.

The Ashokan period inscription on the pillar shows that Emperor Ashoka was not very happy about the divisive forces that were arising within Buddhist Sanghas. And for this reason, in this very inscription, Emperor Ashoka has warned the monks, nuns who try to divide Buddhism and the Buddhist Sangha.

Whoever creates deity in the Sangha, whether a monk or a nuns, will be forcibly put on white clothes and thrown out of the Sangha.

THE SCRIPT OF THE TEXT IS BRAMHI AND THE LANGUAGE IS PRAKRIT. Even in this warning of Emperor Ashoka, there is no glimpse of violence from anywhere, this warning shows the extent to which Ashoka had assimilated the Buddha’s teachings of non-violence.

According to the Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsang, there was a huge Buddhist monastery at this place, about 1500 Buddhist monks and nuns resided in this monastery, perhaps this is why Ashoka has written this inscription for this monastery at Sarnath mentioned by Hiuen Tsang. Presently the remains of this ancient Buddhist monastery are spread over a wide area around the Ashokan Pillar.

Lion Capital preserved in the Museum of Sarnath

Bell shaped vase covered with inverted lotus :- Lotus flowers are found all over India. Since ancient times, lotus flower has been given special importance in Hindu, Buddhist and Jain religious texts.

The images of Gautam Buddha found at Sarnath and other places in India depict Lord Buddha sitting, standing, meditating, preaching on a lotus flower as well as it is also a sign of the womb of Buddha’s mother Mayadevi. Seeing the importance of lotus flower in Indian culture, it also has the distinction of being the national flower of India.

ABACUS:-

The abacus structure bears living replicas of four animals and four wheels with 24 spokes. These animals are lion, Bull, Horse and Elephant. A wheel with 24 spokes is shown after each animal. There are different opinions among historians regarding the figures of animals built on the abacus.

If you look closer at the center of the Ashoka chakra (the 24 spoked wheel on the abacus, shown in the above image) you will find that it looks peculiarly rough and eroded relative to the surrounding regions which are extremely smooth and polished. Daya Ram Sahni believed that this was done intentionally. He believed that there probably would have been precious stones placed in the center of the four Ashoka chakras.

The centers were made rough so that the stone sticks better and more firmly at the place.

MR BELL believed that the four animals built on the abacus are symbols of the animals living on the four corners of the ANOTATTA lake.

DAYARAM SAHNI also got a glimpse of the Anotatta lake in these animals.

ANOTATTA LAKE :- This lake is located in the Himalayas and according to Buddhist scriptures is the focal point of the world. Many historians consider that the present Mansarovar lake is the one that is referred to as the Anotatta lake in some places. The rivers Ganges, Vankshu, Indus and Sita are believed to be originating from this lake. This lake is considered one of the holiest places of Hindus, Buddhists, Jains.

BRIJ WASI LAL . :- According to B.B Lal, (Renowned archaeologist of India) the Rakshastal near Mansarovar Lake, also known as Ravantal, was known as Anotatta Sarovar in ancient times. The Sutlej river originates from the Rakshastal or Ravanatal.

DR. BLOCKH:- He believed that these four animals are symbols of INDRA, SHIVA, SURYA, and DURGA From the depiction of these animals on the Ashokan pillar, he concluded that these three Gods and Goddesses had accepted the greatness of Gautam Buddha and had come under his shelter.

DR. FOGEL :- He believed that all these animals are just ornamentation, and they have been used on the abacus of Ashokan Pillar only from the point of view of art.

MANSAROVAR (WIKIPEDIA)

B. MAJUMDAR :- The most detailed, practical explanation of the animals carved on the Ashoka Pillar has been given by Majumdar, which also seems to be the most appropriate one. According to him, lotus is not only a sacred flower described in Hindu, Jain and Buddhist religions, as well as it is a sign of the womb of Buddha’s mother Mayadevi. Similarly the four animals engraved on the abacus, and the 24 spoked wheels represent major events in the life of the Buddha.

ELEPHANT:- Elephant is a symbol of the dream of Mayadevi, (mother of Buddha).

From this dream, Mayadevi realized the arrival of Buddha in her womb. According to this story, Maya Devi, the mother of Buddha, had a dream before he was born. In the dream, Mayadevi saw a white elephant, which is entering her womb from the right side with a white lotus in her trunk.

The queen discussed the dream with the king. The king mentioned this incident to all the astrologers in his court, and wanted to know more about this dream, all the astrologers unanimously called this dream auspicious and something very special.

GALLOPING HORSE :- The horse is a symbol of the temporary royalty of the Buddha.

LION(THE ONE ON ABACUS):- A lion with twitching tail , Lion symbolizes Gautam Buddha being Shakya Simha.(Lion of a Shakya clan )

TAURUS

TAURUS:- It is the symbol of the birth sign of Buddha. Some historians associate it with ancient plowing and seed sowing. (Here it symbolizes the planting of new ideas by the Buddha).

TWENTY -FOUR SPOKED WHEEL

Twenty-four spoked wheel of the MORAL LAW. The twenty -four spokes on the spinning wheel symbolize the twenty four Pratyay (teachings) of Buddhism. The spinning wheel in the middle of the national flag of India is also taken from here.

It is known as ASHOKA CHAKRA because it was built on the Ashokan Pillar. Note that these four, twenty four spoked wheels are the ones that are made on the abacus facing the four directions and not the 32 spoked wheel at the top.

Also note that the 32 spoked wheel cannot be seen on the actual lion capital which is kept in the Sarnath archeological site museum because it was found broken, though its fragmented pieces might be seen which are kept in such a manner to illustrate how it might have looked and this is also the reason why the 32 spoked wheel might sometimes be seen in the replicas of the capital.

THE LION CAPITAL

The famous four addorsed lions. The figure of four lions is built on top of the abacus. These four lions are standing with their backs to their backs.

The jaws of these lions are open and the tongue is sticking out and their teeth seem to be as pointed as spears, the claws are protruding from their paws. The well-structured venison and mane of these lions are shown very beautifully. From the structure of the eyes of the four lions, it appears that the circular structure of these eyes must have been studded with precious stones.

To a large extent, it is possible that the warning of Emperor Ashoka in the context of people trying to divide Buddhism is inscribed on the top of the pillar and these four lions are an attempt to embody and make the same warning effective.
THE FOUR LIONS ARE SYMBOLS OF BUDDHIST MONKS PROCLAIMING BUDDHA’S TEACHINGS IN ALL FOUR DIRECTIONS.

THE THIRTY TWO SPOKED WHEEL


Remains of 32 spoke wheel in Sarnath Museum

DETAILS OF THE TOP WHEEL OF THE LION CAPITAL

This wheel (The symbol of the Buddhist law), originally adorned the ‘Lion Capital as a crowning member, supported on a short stone shaft. The stone shaft was not discovered from excavation but the thickness can be estimated from the mortice hole, 20.5 cms. In diameter, drilled into the stone between heads of the four seated lions.

Four fragments of the rim portion of the wheel and spoke remains were found. The total number of spokes was presumably 32. These 32 spokes perhaps are indicative of the 32 chief signs of a Great Man (Mahapurusha Lakshana) as described in the Buddhist text Lakkhan sutta of Dighnikaya.

I personally believe that the Ashokan Pillar found in Sarnath is not only the national symbol of India, but the it is the embodiment of the entire heritage of India. Ashokan Pillar is a symbol of Buddha’s teachings, Ashoka’s welfare state and a symbol of India’s civilization and its gradual development. Even from the point of view of ancient Indian sculpture, the Ashokan Pillar is incomparable among all the ancient art works.

My last post that I wrote about Sarnath was the longest post that I ever wrote in my whole carrier and still it was not enough to write about every single thing in detail this is not surprising considering the fact that Sarnath is such a huge place to learn and discover about history. One such important thing that I was unable to write about in detail was the the Lion Capital and the Ashokan pillar that is why I decided to write this post.

If you want to read more about Sarnath and its history please take a look at my last post about Sarnath where I have tried to describe Sarnath as a whole and have also written about some places that you might want to visit if you are coming to Sarnath. I am mentioning the link below you can read it from there. https://nithinks.com/2021/10/27/light-of-asia-sarnathvaranasi/